[Cost of printing Census, Report, &c.—£519 8s 0d.]


Acerage in Cultivation necessary to maintain a civilised Community

Age-Groups—Contrast of proportions with other Countries

Age-Groups—Contrasted with former Census Periods

Ages of the People

Ages of the People by Quinquennial and other Age-Periods in each State of the Commonwealth and New Zealand at the last Census (1901)

Agriculture—Progress of Agriculture

Annual Estimates of Population since 1841, how framed

Area in square miles of each Electoral District

Area to be traversed by Sub-Enumerators

Birth-places at different Census Periods

Birth-places of the People

Birth-rate in Australasia since 1861

Blind—Number and Proportion

Blindness in a large measure a condition of Age

Blindness in different Countries in relation to Age

Born in Tasmania

Born in Australasia

Born in England and Wales

Born in Scotland

Born in Ireland

Born in United Kingdom

Born in Other British Possessions

Born in Foreign Countries

Breadwinners, Average percentage Proportion of different Classes in different Countries

Breadwinners, Distribution of various Classes in each Electoral District

Breadwinners, Numbers and Proportions in each Class

Breadwinners, Percentage Proportion in different Countries

Breadwinners, under distinct Age-Groups

Categories, Relating to the Dwelling

Categories, Relating to the Individual

Categories, Relating to the Censuses of 1881, 1891, and 1901

Census Act

Census Compilation

Census Conference at Sydney

Census Date of

Census Initial preparations

Census Means adopted to enlist the interests of the People

Census Resolutions of Conference to secure uniformity in Tabulation

Census of David

Census of Moses

Census of Joab

Census Subjects of inquiry

Census the objects and utility of

Census-taking, History of

Census-taking, in other Countries

Census-taking, in France

Census-taking, in Quebee

Census-taking, in Great Britain

Census-taking, in Ireland

Census-taking, in Norway

Census-taking, in Sweden

Census-taking, in Tasmania

Census-taking, in United States

Census-taking, Local preparations for

Charts, Preparation of

Cities, Towns, and Villages having a Population of 100 and over

Comparative progress at different Periods

Comparative progress of Cities, Towns, and Mining and other Centres during the last Intercensal Period

Conjugal Condition of the People

Concluding Observations

Conference of Australasian Statisticians

Cost of Census—Total cost

Cost of Enumeration in Tasmania

Cost of Enumeration in different Countries

Cost of Enumeration at different Periods

Deaf and Dumb, Number and Proportion

Deaf Mutes in various Countries

Death-rate in Australasia since 1861

Death-rate in relation to the capacity of the Dwelling

Dwellings, Number of

Education—Degree of Education according to Age

Education—Improvement since previous Census

Education—in Australasian States

Education—of the People

Education—of Children

Education—proportion at Age of 15 who could read and write in each Electoral District

Education—receiving instruction at "School-Age"

Education—Tasmania compared with other Australian States

Fertile Age—Women

Grades of Occupation—Employers

Grades of Occupation—Engaged on own account

Grades of Occupation—Wage-Earners

Grades of Occupation—Unemployed

Habitations of the People

Introduction to General Report

Labour involved in Compilation and Tabulation

Length of Residence of Persons living in Tasmania born elsewhere

Lodgment showing the percentage of families living in houses of 1 room, 2 rooms, 3 rooms, 4 rooms and 5 rooms and over

Marriageable Men and Women

Method of Tabulation by the Card System

Migration, Balance of, during Thirty years

Migration, Australasian Colonies

Migration, Gain or Loss at each Intercensal period since 1841

Migration, United Kingdom

Natural Increase in Australasia since 1861

Newly-established Centres of Population

Occupations of the People

Occupations Classification of

Occupations Conditions upon which the proportions of the several Classes of Occupations depend

Occupations Grades

Occupations Dependants on Breadwinners, &c.

Occupations Distributors of Materials (commercial, transport, and communication)

Occupations Modifiers of Materials (industrial)

Occupations Employers

Occupations Personal and Immaterial Services (classes, professional and domestic)

Occupations Primary Producers

Occupations Related to the Land

Occupations Indefinite

Occupations Order of Importance

Occupations Principles upon which Classification is based

Occupations Systematic Tabulation under Classes, Orders, and Sub-Orders

Occupations Two last Censuses compared

Occupations Under 24 Orders

Population—Aggregation in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Districts

Population—Annual Rate of Increase during the last century in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Australasia, and Tasmania

Population—Number of years required to double Population, in different Countries, and at different Periods

Population—By natural Age-Groups

Population—Causes upon which Growth depends

Population—Distribution and Movement by Electoral Divisions

Population—Estimated Population in Tasmania and in the Commonwealth during the next 100 years

Population—Increase 1891-1901, in various Countries

Population—Increase last Census, 1901, in Australasia

Population—Increase last Census, 1901, in Tasmania

Population—Progress of Population during last Inter-censal period in each of the States of the Commonwealth and New Zealand

Population—Of the larger Geographical Divisions

Population—Rate of Increase abnormal in the earlier years

Population—Rate of Increase diminishing in recent years

Progress—General Progress since 1891

Progress—of Population

Preparatory Work of the Central Office

Printing—Work involved

Religion—Census of Religion taken in nearly all civilised Countries, save England and Scotland

Religion—Proportion of Persons who "object" to state the Denomination to which they belong

Religion—Proportion of Principal Denominations relative to total Population

Religion—and Education

Religions of the People


Schools—Receiving Instruction in State and other Schools or Colleges

Scope of a Census

Segregation of Ages at Decennial Periods

Sickness and Accident at each Age

Sickness and Accident Disablement of Men, yearly

Sickness and Accident Influence of Age, Climate, Density of Population, Occupation, &c

Sickness and Accident Working Days Lost per man, per year, at each and all Groups of Ages

Sickness and Accident Yearly disablement in various Countries

Sickness and Infirmity

Sickness and Infirmity Disabled from, at each Age-Period

Sickness and Infirmity Unable to follow Occupation by reason of Accident

Sickness and Infirmity Unable to follow Occupation by reason of Sickness

Soldier's Age—Numbers at

Sub-Enumerators—Number and Distribution

Superior condition of the mass of the People of Tasmania as regards Lodgment, as compared with the average of England and Scotland

Tabulation—Systematic work of

Towns having a Population of 3000 and over

Tasmanians living in each Australasian State

Utility of a Modern Census

Weak link of the Census

Work of Enumeration

Worker's Age


Registrar-General's Office, Hobart, 12th September, 1902.



After an interval of nearly ten years from the taking of the previous Census in Tasmania, the Ninth Census was taken simultaneously with the other States of the Commonwealth of Australia and with New Zealand, on the night of Sunday, the 31st March, 1901.

According to the rule hitherto adopted by the Statisticians of Australasia for fixing the date, viz., the first Sunday following the first day of April, it would have been necessary to take the last Census on the 7th April, 1901. This would have been Easter Sunday. The Conference of Australasian Statisticians, held in Sydney on the 25th January, 1900, to arrange for the collection and compilation of the Census of 1901 upon a uniform principle, was of opinion that it would be unwise to adopt that date, owing to the great disturbance of population which always occurs at Easter time. For this and other important reasons the various Parliaments of the States of Australia and of New Zealand finally fixed upon the Sunday night preceding Easter Sunday, viz., 31st March, 1901. At this time it was intimated that the Census of the United Kingdom would be fixed for the same day, and the desire to be in unison with the Mother Country was the main reason why the Census in Australasia was fixed before, rather than after, the Easter time.

In Tasmania the enumeration of people and dwellings, and the particulars agreed upon by the adoption of the "Model Householder's Schedule," were so far successfully carried out or obtained that the Superintendent of the Census was enabled to publish the general results concerning population, dwellings, and distribution in theGazetteof 23rd April, 1901, that is within about three weeks of the Census day. More extended summaries were published from time to time, and early in the month of January, 1902, the following important summaries were published in "Population" (Part V.) of the "Statistics of the Colony" for the year 1900, viz. :—

The compilation of the whole of the detailed Census Tables under the various categories were satisfactorily completed in manuscript by the 22nd October, 1901 ; that is within seven months of the date fixed for the taking of the Census. In consequence, however, of more than ordinary pressure of work being imposed upon the Government Printer, the printing of the various Parts has been very much delayed. Parts have now been printed and published, and the remaining Parts are so well in hand that I am enabled to furnish you with the usual necessary analyses and observations in the form of a General Report, which, as in former Censuses, serves as an introduction to the completed Tabular Parts.



An account of the Ninth Census of Tasmania, taken on the night of the 31st March, 1901, simultaneously with nearly all other portions of the British Empire, would be incomplete without glancing at the history of previous attempts at enumeration of the people.

Although official estimates of the population were prepared from time to time after the first settlement was established in the Island on Monday, the 12th day of September, 1803, it was not until the 27th September, 1841, that the first proper Census of the population was undertaken. Since that time eight Censuses have been taken at intervals of from 3 to 11 years, or a mean interval of nearly 7 years between the various Censuses.

The earlier Censuses were taken more frequently, the average interval being only about 5½ years. The latter Censuses (1881, 1891, and 1901) were taken after longer intervals ; the interval between the Sixth and Seventh being 11 years ; between the Seventh and Eighth and Eighth and Ninth, nearly 10 years respectively, thus :—

Thus it would appear the first proper Census of Tasmania was not undertaken until nearly 38 years after the date of its first settlement. This, however, is not to be wondered at when we consider that from the middle ages up to about this time violent prejudices against the enumeration of the people prevailed in nearly all the countries of the world.


Undoubtedly it is due to the unreasoning prejudices referred to in a previous chapter that no attempt was made to take a proper Census of Great Britain until as late as the year 1753. The Bill even then introduced was defeated in the House of Lords ; and this defeat may be taken as a proof of the strong surviving prejudice against an enumeration of the people. This is clearly manifested in the speech of Mr. Mathew Ridley, Member for Newcastle-upon-Tyne, in which he stated, among other objections, that he knew by letters that "the people looked on the proposal as ominous, and feared lest public misfortune or an epidemical distemper should follow the numbering." Nearly half a century passed away before another attempt was made (March, 10, 1801), which, however, proved successful. But we learn that this first attempt was far from perfect as an enumeration. The Census taken in Ireland for the first time, in 1812, is stated to have been a complete failure ; and the same authority states that the first successfulnominalCensus taken in the United Kingdom was that of Ireland in the year 1821, that is, only 20 years earlier than the firstnominalCensus taken in Tasmania. The earliest modern regular Censuses known, in which the old province of Quebec takes first place of honour, are :—

Province of Quebec1665.
United States of America1790.
Great Britain1801.

Happily the prejudices so strongly opposed to Census-taking up to the close of the eighteenth century have now died away almost entirely, and there is now no civilised country which does not avail itself of the information which can alone be obtained by a Census, and which is so essential to the good guidance of all matters relating to the political, social, and material interests of the people.


Census Conference held in Sydney.

The first important step to arrange for the collection and compilation of the Census of 1901 upon a uniform principle in Australasia, was that taken by the Premiers of the Seven Colonies of Australasia at a meeting held by them in Sydney on the 25th January, 1900. At this meeting the Premiers decided that a Conference of Statisticians, representing the Colonies of Australia and New Zealand, should, at an early day, be called together in Sydney for the purpose of making arrangements for the taking of a Census in each Colony during the year 1901. Accordingly, by the intervention of the Honourable Sir W. J. Lyne, K.C.M.G., Premier and Colonial Treasurer of New South Wales, a Conference of Statisticians representing each Colony was held in Sydney on 26th February, 1900, which continued its sittings to the 3rd of March, 1900.

The members of the Conference held, in all, six sittings.

The representatives of the various colonies taking part in the Conference were.—Mr. T. A. Coghlan, F.S.S, representing New South Wales ; Mr. von Dadelzen, New Zealand ; Mr. J. J. Fenton, Victoria ; Mr. M. A. C. Fraser, Western Australia ; Mr. J. Hughes, Queensland ; Mr. L. Sholl, South Australia ; and Mr. R. M. Johnston, F.S.S., Tasmania. Mr. Coghlan was unanimously chosen as Chairman of the Conference.

Mr. H. A. Smith, an officer of the Statistician's Department, New South Wales, was appointed Secretary, and Mr. W. Ridley, Deputy Registrar-General of New South Wales, by invitation, attended the Conference as advising Member.

In order to facilitate the business of the Conference three sub-committees were appointed. To the first sub-committee was entrusted the task of drawing up a uniform householder's schedule, to the second the revision of the classification of occupations, and to the third was given the duty of drawing up the reasons which led the Conference to recommend the fixing of the particular day for taking the Census.

The scope and limits of the subjects of enquiry was the first point to be determined, and after full discussion the Conference was of opinion that there should be only one addition to the inquiries made at the Census of 1891, viz., where the person enumerated was not born in the Colony he should be asked the length of time he has resided therein.

There were several suggestions for increasing the number of questions to be asked of the people, but the majority of the members of the Conference were of opinion that it would be unwise to extend the inquiries beyond the class of subjects usually prescribed in countries where the Census is taken upon schedules. If, as in some countries, the plan were adopted of appointing enumerators whose business it would be to make personal inquiries from house to house, and fill up their books from the particulars thus obtained, much more elaborate inquiries might be ventured upon.

In order to ensure uniformity, both in making inquiries at the Census and in presenting the results arrived at, the Conference agreed to adopt the form of a "Model Schedule," based upon certain resolutions already agreed upon. The members of the Conference pledged themselves, as far as it may be in their power, to adhere to these resolutions, as they were deeply impressed with the consideration that as six of the Colonies were about to enter upon a federation, the necessity of uniformity in the collection and presentation of all matters affecting finance and electoral representation was of vital importance.

In view of the difficulties which arose at some previous enumerations, owing to the model schedule being attached to the Census Act, the Conference unanimously resolved to recommend that the heads of inquiry only, and not the Census schedule, be embodied in the Census Act in those Colonies where such an Act is necessary.

The Conference decided again to adopt, with slight modification of one or two Sub-Groups, the Classification of Occupations drawn up for the Census Conference of 1891 by the accomplished Statistician of New South Wales (Mr. T. A. Coghlan) and myself.

The resolutions of the Conference drawn up and adopted number 22 in all. These were embodied in their final report, of which the following is an abstract :—



That as the Sunday next following the 1st April, 1901, is Easter Sunday, and large numbers of persons are away from home on that day, the Census be taken as for another day.

Subjects of Inquiry.


That the subjects respecting which it is desired that inquiry be made at the Census be named in "The Census Act," but that the Schedule containing those inquiries be not attached thereto.


That the subjects for inquiry be as follow :—Name, Sex, Birthplace, Age, Religion, Occupation, Conjugal Condition, Education, Sickness and Infirmity, Materials of Houses, Number of Rooms, Length of Residence in the Colony.


That the Return of Religion be not compulsory, and that it be optional to insert the word "object" instead, by any one having an objection to stating his religious belief.


That the inquiry be made as to whether the person returned is an employer, a worker on his own account, or an employee, or whether he is unemployed.


That with reference to Conjugal Condition, it be optional with each Colony to make inquiry as to the year of marriage, and the total number of children (living and dead) born to each couple.


That with reference to Education, an inquiry be made as to those able to read and write, able to read only and not write, and unable to read ; also, as to those who may be graduates of any University, together with the designations of their respective degrees, and of the Universities at which such degrees were conferred.


That with reference to Sickness and Infirmity, an inquiry be made as to the persons laid up or unable to pursue their usual occupation on account of illness or the effects of an accident, or who may be deaf and dumb, or blind.


That in the Return of Houses, those inhabited, uninhabited, and in course of erection, be separately distinguished.


That the Householder's Schedule should specify that persons traveling or out at work during the night of the Census (and not elsewhere returned), and who return home on the day after the Census, are to be included as if they were present in the house on the night of the Census.


That in accordance with the foregoing resolutions, the Householder's Schedule drawn up by this Conference be the basis of the inquiries to be made under "The Census Act."



That, as far as possible, the Chinese, Pacific Islanders, and other coloured races, as well as the Aborigines (including half-castes), be tabulated with the general population under every head of inquiry, and separate tables be prepared, so that it may be possible to separate them therefrom, as may be desired.


That in working out proportions under any head of inquiry to show the ratio of the numbers in each line to the total, the items in the line for the unspecified be altogether excluded from the computation.


That persons whose birthplace is stated to be "Australia," if under 12 years of age, be tabulated as born in the Colony to which the Census relates, and if 12 years of age or over in the column for "Australia undefined."


That children respecting whom the return of religion is unspecified be tabulated as of the religion of their parents, if the father and mother are stated to be of the same religion ; or if the religion of only one parent is specified, as of the religion of that parent ; but that if the parents are of different denominations, no assumption be made as to the religion of the children, who are to be classed as unspecified.


That the ages of the people of either sex be tabulated in single ages up to 21, then in quinquennial periods of age up to 85, and after that in single ages ; also, that a table be prepared showing the numbers of either sex in the whole population at each year of age.


(A) That in tabulating the Occupations of the people, the numbers of either sex under 5 years of age ; between 5 and 15 ; 15 and 20 ; 20 and 25 ; 25 and 45 ; 45 and 65 ; and over 65 be distinguished.

(B) That the Occupations be tabulated according to the system of classification adopted by this Conference ; also, that subsidiary tables be compiled showing :—

(1) The ordinary Occupations of the unemployed of either sex, a person to be considered as unemployed it out of work for more than a week prior to the Census.

(2) Employers of labour and persons in business for themselves, relatives assisting, and wage-earners ; no person to be considered as belonging to one of the foregoing divisions who is not actually employed.

(3) The ordinary or former occupations of inmates of either sex of (a) hospitals, (b) benevolent asylums, (c) hospitals for the insane, (d) other charitable institutions, (e) gaols and penal establishments.

(c) That in the main tabulation, in the case of a person returned as following more than one occupation, he be tabulated, as a rule, under the head of the first mentioned,—the exception being a Government officer following some other calling,—as, for instance, "deputy-registrar and storekeeper," in which case he is to be classed as a storekeeper ; also, a person residing where one of his occupations is carried on which would warrant its being considered as the more important, as, for instance, "farmer and publican," living at the public-house, is to be classed as a publican, although that calling may be stated second ; also, that a subsidiary table be prepared showing the persons who follow two or more occupations.


(A) That in the table of Education the people be grouped in single ages up to 21 years, and after that in quinquennial periods to 85 years of age ; those of either sex able to read and write, able to read only, and unable to read, being distinguished.

(B) That no child under 3 years of age be set down as able to read, and no child under 5 years of age as able to write ; also, that no person be set down as illiterate who can read or write any foreign language.

(C) That a table also be prepared showing the degree of primary instruction possessed by children between 5 and 15 years of age of each religious denomination ; and

(D) That a further table be prepared in age groups showing the education of persons born in the Colony (exclusive of aborigines).


(A) That in the tables of Conjugal Condition the people be grouped in single ages from 14 to 21 years of age, those of either sex never married, married, widowed, or divorced, being distinguished ; that Chinese be set down as never married unless they have or have had wives in Australasia.

(B) That a table he prepared showing the relative ages of husbands and wives ; also the number of wives whose husbands were absent, and of husbands whose wives were absent, on the Census night.


That a table be prepared showing the number of private families with domestic servants, distinguishing families with one servant, two servants, three, four, five, over five and under ten, ten and over ; and also similar particulars in respect of hotels, boarding-houses, &c.


That tables be prepared showing the numbers of either sex suffering from each description of sickness or infirmity, grouped in single years of age up to 21, and afterwards in quinquennial periods up to 85 years of age ; that tables be also prepared showing the occupations of those suffering from each description of illness.


That in the case of houses, public offices, banks, stores, &c., in which a person or family resides in order to take care of the premises, the number of rooms occupied by such person or family is to be given, and not the whole number in the building. Where a shop is attached to a dwelling the former is not to be considered a room without someone sleeps therein.


The Census Act.

The Tasmanian Census of 1901 was taken under the provisions of a special enactment, "The Census Act, 1901," assented to on 24th August, 1900, which appointed the day upon which the enumeration was to be made, and gave the Superintendent of the Census (Government Statistician of the Colony) the authority necessary to carry out the various objects of the Census. The Act also gave authority for the appointment of the necessary officers.

Among other necessary provisions the Act followed closely upon those of the previous Census, making an exception in regard to religious belief, declaring it optional on the part of any person to state the nature of the faith, if any, professed by him ; answers to all other inquiries were made compulsory.

Means Adopted to Enlist beforehand the Interest and Co-operation of the Press and the People.

Prior to the taking of the Census of 1891 I felt that the success of the Census depended in a large measure upon the intelligent interest and willing co-operation of the people generally. To enlist their interest I prepared a small p&hlet, giving a popular account of "The Object and Utility of a Modern Census." With the approval of the Government, these observations, three months prior to the Census day, were printed in p&hlet form, and, together with a circular inviting the co-operation of the Director of Education, the School Boards, School Teachers, and the local Press, were widely distributed throughout the Colony. By such means, and by the hearty co-operation of the School Teachers and the local Press, the minds of the people generally were awakened and favourably interested. The same course was followed by me on the occasion of the taking the last Census, with like favourable results.

The following extracts, bearing upon the utility, scope, and other important matters relating to census-taking, are taken from the p&hlet referred to, as they serve as an appropriate introduction to the tabular analyses contained in subsequent chapters of this report :—


"The Object and Utility of a Modern Census.

"Although the object and utility of a modern Census are now so well understood by all thoughtful persons, it cannot be overlooked that, among the people generally, there still exists a large amount of misconception which operates seriously in marring the accuracy of results which can alone be obtained by theintelligent co-operation of every person in the community.

"The next great national 'stock-taking,' fixed for the night of Sunday, 31st March, 1901, for all the States of the Commonwealth of Australia, and for New Zealand, is looked forward to with the most eager interest by all thoughtful persons. Nor is this to be wondered at. The vital, material, and social well-being of a nation depends in a larger degree than is ordinarily realised upon the accuracy of its knowledge concerning the number, character, and condition of its people. It is the greatmeasuring-rodfor determining and making timely provision for the supply of all material satisfactions, and for guiding us more securely in determining growing tendencies—whether for good or evil—thereby enabling us to make accurate forecasts, and to make timely and intelligent provision for checking the evil and fostering the good. The objects of a modern Census are altogether different from those of the ancients. The Census of David, recorded in the 24th chapter of the Second Book of Samuel, was instigated purely by the spirit of aggressive warfare or conquest ; and, accordingly, its scope was confined to the number of'valiant men who drew the sword.'The only warfare which the modern Census enumeration contemplates is confined to the peaceful conflicts of industry and commerce, and the discovery, subjugation, and control of the unknown or adverse forces of nature.

"Instead of the mere enumeration ofvaliant men who drew the sword,the modern Census seeks rather to ascertain the number of its'bread-winners,'and the number of young, aged, and helpless

dependants, in order to enable wiser provisions to be made for rendering the mutual exchange of services of the former more effective, and for making the training or care of the latter more in accord with the higher ideals of modern civilised life.

"But a Census enumeration does more than photograph the facts at the moment of Census-taking. It enables comparisons to be made with former periods, and from these we are enabled to determine many useful laws relating to the direction and rates of progression of all important movements and tendencies.

"Thus serious faminesin modern times, as compared with ancient times, are mainly averted, or their severity mitigated by statistical knowledge largely based upon the facts primarily ascertained by the Census. The lands devoted to agriculture and pastoral purposes year by year, if not wisely extended in harmony with the ascertained rate of the growth of population and its growing needs, would surely produce famine or misdirected and wasted labour, were it not that those whose interest it is to make provision are guided by statistical knowledge, which could only be rendered possible by periodic Census-taking. The termper headof the Statistician, though a meaningless symbol or phrase to the thoughtless or to the ignorant, is, to the statesman, the life insurance actuary, the director of education, the commercialentrepreneur, the sanitary adviser, the social economist—analagous to the never-failing 'barometer' or 'sounding-lead'— whereby the course of events is instantly disclosed ; thus making it possible to aid or counteract tendencies favourable or unfavourable, so far as such may be within human power.

"From what has been stated it is made sufficiently manifest that the great object of a Census is to gather such information as will be of material service in throwing light upon the more important social and economic questions, thereby making it possible to guide the affairs of the social organisation with greater intelligence and security as regards social and material well-being.

"Scope of a Census.

"The value of information gained by means of a Census primarily depends upon the intelligence, honesty, and disposition of the averagehouseholder.If we ask too many complicated questions we may put too great a strain upon average intelligence or comprehension, and the subsequent pretentious tabulation of the Statistician would be worthless or deceptive. If we arbitrarily seek to invade the privacy of the individual as regards means or income, morals, or even religious belief, we may certainly expect passive or indignant opposition, or—what is worse—we may receive from many, dishonest replies. The practical Statistician who has had experience in Census-taking would avoid failure due to such causes by strictly limiting the number of inquiries to such subjects as will not unnecessarily invade the privacy of the individual, and not place a greater strain than can be safely borne by the intelligence and honesty of thepoorest householder.

"There is little or no value in the pretentious tabular results of countries where the scope of Census inquiries have been framed with too little regard for such important considerations.

"The Weak Link of the Census.

"The strength of a chain is determined by itsweakest link, and the weakest link in Census-taking is thepoorly-educated householder. Many householders are unable to read and write, while a still larger number, from carelessness, ignorance, or lack of interest, fail to comprehend what is required of them in the filling up of the several columns of thehouseholder's schedule.The necessary notes of instruction at head of each column, &lified by more comprehensive notes of guidance and model forms of entry on the back of each schedule, appal and confuse many who are unaccustomed to interpretations of this nature.

"How can these difficulties be lessened, if not altogether overcome? Perhaps the most successful plan for securing and ifitensifying the interest of all persons in regard to the Census would be to secure the interests ofchildren at schoolsby the co-operation of School Boards, and especially by that of the localschoolmasterandschoolmistress.Let the Government call upon each Chief Superintendent of Census to prepare amodel lecturetteon the objects of the Census, and having done so, let there be issued—as on the occasion of the last Census in the year 1891—a printed copy of the lecturette and a blankhouseholder's schedule,accompanied by a courteously written circular addressed to thehead teachers of every school in the land,inviting their cordial co-operation by asking them to fix a special day for aCensus Lessonfor the children, accompanied by black-board illustrations as to the manner in which the householder's schedule should be filled up. If this were done, it is certain that it would be productive of the very best results. The lesson of the children would certainly take strong hold of the interest of parents, and there is not a humble home throughout the land where the lesson of the children would fail to penetrate, and where the less favourably educated parents would not fail to become, for the time being, the proud pupils of their own more favourably educated children. The Press—the great educator—may do much to forward this desirable idea in the interests of the public weal.

"Thus it appears the first proper Census of the Island was not undertaken until nearly 38 years after the date of its first settlement. This, however, is not to be wondered at when we consider that from the Middle Ages up to this time violent prejudices against the enumeration of the people prevailed in nearly all the countries of the world."


The success of a Census enumeration depends, in a large measure, upon the care taken by the Chief Superintendent of the Census in having the whole plan of operations thoroughly worked out in every detail at least nine months prior to the Census-day. This precaution is absolutely necessary when we consider the vast amount of preliminary work which must be completed not less than two

months prior to the actual distribution of Householder's Schedules throughout the whole Colony. Indeed, in populous countries the time required for such preliminary work may engage the close attention of a permanent staff during the whole time of an intercensal period.

The extensive character of this preliminary work, even in a small Colony like Tasmania, may be realised by a brief enumeration of the various forms, circulars, cards, books of compilation and instruction, devised, printed, and distributed in connection with the work of the last Census, in respect of a population of 172,475 persons, scattered over an area of 26,215 square miles.

It is of much importance to those who may have to undertake the work of a future Census to describe more particularly the nature of this work which must be completed long before the Census-day, as in the following summary :—

  1. Devising form and printing Householder's Schedules in sufficient number to distribute a copy to every family or household, including a marginal reserve of about 20 per cent. to cover the uncertainties of estimates as regards new or abnormally increasing districts. About 50,000 Schedules were printed and distributed at the last Census among 390 Sub-Enumerators. The printing alone of these Schedules—on both sides-would form an eight-inch ribbon of printed matter, or nearly 22 miles in length, or cover an area of nearly 1.8 acres.

  2. Preparing three sets of charts ; scale, 1 inch to the mile. A complete set for Central Office, one set divided among the Chief Enumerators of Census Districts, and one set divided and pasted upon the inside cover of each Sub-Enumerator's compilation book. All these charts were carefully hand-coloured, showing the numerous concatenations formed by the intersection of each Electoral, Municipal, Registration, Road Trust, City, and Town boundary. Each mesh or concatenation so formed was distinguished by a particular number, and being the ultimate "area-unit," it formed the so-called locality "Census Sub-division." In addition, each of the independent district boundaries, such as Electoral, Municipal, Registration, &c., were characterised by a distinctive boundary colour. As each of these larger divisions have their areas wholly made up of "area-units" or "Census Sub-divisions," it is a simple matter to compile particulars of the larger divisions from the catalogued "area-units" of which they are severally composed.

  3. 3. Devising, classifying, and printing books of :—

    1. Instructions for the special guidance of Enumerators of Districts.

    2. Instructions for the special guidance of Sub-Enumerators.

    3. Instructions for the special guidance of Tabulators.

    4. Instructions as to the mode of-entering particulars in Sub-Enumerator's Compilation Book.

  4. Printing about 205,000 cards (Tabulating Cards) specially devised for facilitating, and ensuring greater accuracy in the extensive and intricate work of Tabulation.

  5. Printing and distributing a large number of necessary circulars to Enumerators and Sub-Enumerators in connection with particular stages of the work.

  6. Selecting and appointing Census Staff, organizing and carefully drilling them in their various duties, especially as regards the exact limits of their respective district boundaries throughout the country.

  7. Arousing the interest of the people, and invoking their aid in making the work of the Census a success, by means of advertisements, p&hlets, and especially by enlisting the kindly good-will and co-operation of the Press and of the Teachers of Colleges and Elementary Schools.

The details given in the foregoing list give some idea of the large amount of work involved in the preliminary preparations for Census-taking, and necessitates, long prior to the Census-day, the careful study and rehearsal of countless minutiae, the oversight of any one of the which might destroy the value of the whole work of the Census.

Work of Enumeration.

The actual work of Enumeration, and the methods and precautions taken to secure completeness and accuracy, are usually mixed up in the body of the larger number of introductory reports on such matters. In this, as in my Report on the last Census, I have in a large measure eliminated the minutiae which refer to the methods and precautions taken to secure completeness and accuracy, in order to impress more clearly upon the mind the extent and character of the actual work of Enumeration. The minute details of methods to secure accuracy and completeness can better be studied apart in appendices as embodied towards the end of this Report.

The Area to be Covered.—

In the first place it must be borne in mind that each Sub-Enumerator of a Sub-District mustpersonallyvisit every dwelling or resting-place for the night of every living person in the Colony at leasttwice ;the first visit for the purpose of distributing the householder's schedules ; the second, or more, visits devoted to the collection, examination, and if necessary the correction of schedules, and in a large number of cases, to writing out the whole of the answers to queries, in cases where the responsible person has from any cause failed to do so. The last visitation, therefore, involved the collection, examination, and correction of 36,470

schedules gathered from the same number of dwellings or resting-places, scattered over 26,215 square miles, within the space of about three days in most cases. The two visits alone, therefore, cover an area of 52,430 square miles, and to accomplish this in so short a space of time is the problem to be worked out by the Superintendent of the Census. The area which one person could cover in about the time referred to depends upon two factors :—

  1. The density of population.

  2. The distance which one person could cover per day, in country districts, either on foot or on horseback.

The greater the density of population enables the Collector to cover a larger population in a given time, but the work involved lessens his power to cover a large distance in traveling : and conversely, the smaller the density of population in a district enables the Collector to cover a larger distance in traveling. Hence it is manifest that in mapping out the work of Sub-Enumerators the size of their respective districts should, in a measure, be determined inversely in relation to the greater or lesser density of population.

By estimates based upon such considerations, aided by the local topographical knowledge of the Chief Enumerator of each Electoral District in the Colony, it was determined that the 26,207 square miles of Rural Districts could be covered by 351 Sub-Enumerators : thus on the average giving 74.66 square miles, 80.72 dwellings, and 370 persons to each Sub Enumerator. The Urban Districts (Hobart and Launceston) were likewise determined, and arrangements made provided that the work might be efficiently carried out by 39 Sub-Enumerators : thus giving an average of 19 square miles, 209 dwellings, and 1094 persons to each Sub-Enumerator.

The following summary shows in all respects the appointment of work of Enumerators for the principal divisions of the Colony forming the larger Census Districts, which, as in former Censuses, for the most part coincide with Electoral District :—

Number and Distribution of Sub-Enumerators.
Area, Square Miles.Dwellings, No.Population, No.Sub-Enumerators, No.Apportionment to each Sub-Enumerator.
Area, Square Miles.Dwellings.Population.
Urban Districts—
Total Urban Districts7.368,14842,676390.19208.901,094
Rural Districts—
New Norfolk427.009364,7641042.7093.60476
George Town431.001,0824,8961139.1798.36445
Devon West773.001,4027,4832130.8166.76356
C&bell Town892.505722,3371274.3747.67195
Total Rural Districts26207.6428,322129,79935174.6680.72370
All Districts26215.0036,470172,47539067.2193.50442

Thus upon the whole the actual work of the Census connected with Enumeration was carried out successfully by a staff of 390 Sub-Enumerators, being 1 to every 67.21 square miles ; 1 to every 93.5 dwellings ; or 1 to every 442 of the population.

Cost of Enumeration.

The total cost of the Census of 1901 was £3767, including all expenses connected with Enumeration, Tabulation, Furniture and Equipment, and General expenses, as follows :—

Amount.Per Sq. Mile.Per Head.
Tabulation and other expenses1,8791502.62

The cost of Enumeration is mainly determined by the work involved :—

  1. In traveling from dwelling to dwelling throughout each particular district.

  2. On the number of the population recorded on the householder's schedule.

In sparsely populated districts the greater proportion of the time and expense of the Enumerator is absorbed in traveling from dwelling to dwelling, the proportion in each district varying with the density of population—increasing relatively with sparsity, and decreasing relatively with density. The relativecost per head, on the other hand, progresses inversely to absolute cost, and to relative costper square mile.Hence it follows that as a population increase in density the cost per head becomes less and less ; while the absolute cost and cost per square mile really increases with the density, although at a differently proportionate rate. Thus it happens that the more densely populated Urban Districts of Tasmania (Hobart and Launceston) in 1901 only show a cost of 0.98d.per headfor Enumeration, while the Rural Districts cost 3.17d.per head.Reckoning by area, however, reverses this order : the cost of Enumeration in Rural Districts being only 1s. 3d. per square mile, while the cost in Urban Districts is as high as £23 11s. 8d. per square mile. The cost of Enumeration of a progressive place, district, or country, should show, under similar conditions, an absolute increase at each succeeding census, and relatively, the cost per square mile should progress inversely to cost per head ; the former with an increasing tendency, and the latter with a decreasing one.

The following is a comparative statement of the absolute and relative cost of Enumeration in Tasmania for the last four Censuses :—

Cost of Enumeration.
Census.Amount.Per Sq. Mile.Per Head.Density per Square Mile.

The same law as to cost of enumeration and collection is also revealed between countries differing in density of population, and between themselves at different Census periods, as shown by the following illustrations :—

Comparative Cost of Enumeration in Different Countries.
Country.CensusPer Sq. Mile.Per Head.Density per Square Mile.
New South Wales1,8910134.193.7
England and Wales1,8711670.95386.5
England and Wales1,8811970.80442.0

The study of the foregoing illustrations of comparative cost of enumeration in different countries and at different periods shows clearly how costper head diminisheswith increasing density of population, while a contrary increase in absolute cost and cost persquare mileinvariably happens with increase in the density of the population. A low costper head, therefore, taken by itself, is no test of economy ; for it can only be reduced as theabsolute costandcost per unit of area increases.The total cost of enumeration in Tasmania in 1901 being only 1s. 5d. per square mile, and 2.62d. per head, compares most favourably with former Censuses in Tasmania, and, on the whole, compares most favourably with the cost of enumeration in other countries when both factors are taken into consideration. Indeed the consideration that the absolute cost of enumeration is actually only £68, or 3.63 per cent., more than it was in the Census of 1891, while the population enumerated in 1901 is greater by 17.60 per cent., is the best evidence that can be afforded of the care taken to secure the information required at the lowest cost consistent with efficiency.

The Systematic Work of Tabulation, Summation, and Analysis.

The systematic work of summation, tabulation, and analysis involved in a modern Census is enormous. The whole work is carried out in the central office after the Schedules and Summaries of Enumerators have been gathered, checked, and arranged in classified order. Primarily, the extent of this work is determined by four fundamental considerations :—

  1. The number of the Population.

  2. The number of distinct categories under which information regarding the same person is again and again abstracted, re-arranged, computed, and set down.

  3. The number of distinct sub-divisions under each category for which summaries are prepared.

  4. The large number of calculations involved in determining the relative percentage proportion of the figures contained in the numerous summaries under the various categories.

The information required to be compiled by the Census of 1901, according to the plan agreed upon by the Conference of Australasian Statisticians, held in Sydney in the year 1900, embraces a larger number of categories than has ever been attempted before in any part of the British Dominions.

This is best shown by comparing the categories of the Census Schedule of Tasmania for 1901 with those of the Census of 1891 and 1881, as follows :—

Census Categories of 1881, 1891, and 1901, compared.
Census 1901.Census 1891.Census 1881.
Categories related to the Dwelling :
1. DwellingThe sameThe same
NumberThe sameThe same
Description (Materials)The sameThe same
No. RoomsThe sameNot ascertained
Rental (annual value)The sameNot ascertained
Categories related to the Individual :
2. NameThe sameThe same
3. SexThe sameThe same
4. Condition as to Marriage :
MarriedThe sameThe same
WidowedThe sameThe same
DivorcedThe sameThe same
Never MarriedThe sameThe same
5. Relation to Head of HouseholdThe sameThe same
6. Profession or OccupationThe sameThe same
7. Grade :
EmployerThe sameNot ascertained
In business on one's own accountThe sameNot ascertained
Relative, assisting head of household in his business, but not receiving salary or wagesThe sameNot ascertained
Salary or Wage-earnerThe sameNot ascertained
Unemployed for more than a week prior to CensusThe sameNot ascertainee
8. Sickness and Infirmity—nature, causeThe sameThe same
9. Birth-placeThe sameThe same
10. Number of years' residence in State, if born elsewhereNot ascertainedNot ascertained
11. Religious denominationThe sameThe same
12. Education :—
Degree :
Cannot ReadThe sameThe same
Read onlyThe sameThe same
Read and WriteThe sameThe same
Receiving Instruction :
At College, Grammar, or High SchoolThe sameThe same
At State SchoolThe sameThe same
At Denominational SchoolNot ascertainedNot ascertained
At HomeThe sameThe same

The number of separate groupings of particulars relating to individuals, under the various categories, necessary to arrive at specific aggregates—afterwards arranged in classified summaries—is much greater than in any previous Census.

The Number of Distinct Categories Determine the Amount of Labour involved in Compilation and Tabulation.

To obtain with accuracy the aggregates under the sub-divisions of each category, from the general information relating to 172,475 persons, contained in 36,470 schedules, may seem a small matter when contrasted with the tabulation of the results of a large population, such as the United Kingdom or the United States. The labour of compilation, however, is not fairly gauged by the mere size or number of the population. It is true that the preliminary work of abstracting the particulars—provided the categories are the same—is fairly measurable by the number of the population ; but this need only absorb aboutone-fifthof the labour of permutation and summation, which latter may depend far less upon the number of the population than upon the number of the groupings for which aggregates have to be obtained and summarised under the various categories.

Take for ex&le some of the more notable of the earliest Censuses of which we have any definite account, as in the following references :—

Census of Moses (Number I., 1-46).

Categories restricted to—

Census Enumeration No.

"Number of the names, every male by their polls ; from twenty years old and upward, all that are able to go forth to war in Israel." The total of the Twelve Tribes (Levi not included) enumerated


If we assume that this would include all males twenty years to, say, fifty years, it would represent a population of about 2,791,000 persons.

Census of Joab—Commanded by David.

Census Enumeration No.

There are two accounts of this very notable Census. That, according to account given in II. Samuel xxiv., 1-17, states that "The valiant men who drew the sword" of Judah and Israel, exclusive of Benjamin and Levi, numbered


The account of the numbering of the men of Israel and Judah "who drew the sword" at this Census, given in 1 Chronicles xxi., 1-17, sets the number down as 1,570,000. It is estimated, therefore, that a population which would yield such a large number of fighting men must have numbered something between 6,012,000 and 7,270,000 persons. It is noteworthy, therefore, that neither of these ancient Censuses embrace more than about 21 per cent. of the population, and contain only one simple category under each tribal division, viz., "valiant men who drew the sword" ; and yet (II. Samuel xxiv., 8) the latter of these Censuses took nine months and twenty days to accomplish. Compare this with the enumeration of 62,000,000 persons of the United States of America in the year 1890, under many categories, accomplished within a month, and in cities of over 10,000 inhabitants within a fortnight. Compare also the Census enumeration of 1901 in Tasmania, with an area nearly four times the size of Ancient Palestine, which was accomplished within ten days of the night fixed for the Census, and the results giving the numbers and proportions of both sexes, for every Electoral District in the State, together with elaborate comparisons with former Censuses, were actually published on 23rd April, 1901, that is within three weeks of the day actually fixed for taking the Census.

Method of Tabulation by the Ticket or Card System.

The successful tabulation of the previous Census by the Ticket or Card System induced me to adopt the same method in the tabulation of the results of the Census of 1901. It may be of great advantage to those who may have to undertake the work of a future Census in Tasmania, therefore, to describe more particularly the mode of working by this system. Although the groupings—numbering nearly a quarter of a million—under the various categories, relating to 172,475 persons

in the Census tabulation, are enormous, they are simply the result of the necessary permutations of fourteen simple categories, as follows :—

Ticket Abbreviation.
1. Locality or residence of person as indicated by the minutest Census sub-divisionDiv.
2. ScheduleSch.
3. Age last birthdayAge.
4. Conjugal ConditionCon.
5. Degree EducationEdn.
6. Where instructed, if receiving educationInst.
7. Where bornBorn7(—)8
8. Whether a British or Foreign subject
9. ResidenceRes.
10. Religious DenominationRelig.
11. Ages of Husband or WifeAge, H./W.
12. Sickness or Infirmity—if soSick.
13. Occupation or Profession of BreadwinnerOccn.13(—)14
13. Duty or Class of Dependants
14. Grade, &c. : Employer on own account, relatives assisting, wage-earner, unemployed seven days prior to Census-day

With a pre-arranged system of abbreviations all this information was abstracted upon specially printed tickets in respect of each individual upon the 36,470 Householders' or other Schedules.

These tickets, an ex&le of which is here given, were of four different kinds :—

census from facsimile

A ticket was thus prepared for each one of the 172,475 persons living in Tasmania on the Census night, and the persons employed in writing up tickets from schedules were paid for this preliminary work at the rate of 2s. 6d. per 100. The tickets were conveniently tied up in 2-set packets, males and females, one 2-set packet for each of the Census sub-divisions, corresponding to the unit of any of the district divisions for which results had to be obtained. Tied with each packet was a small label or tab-ticket, upon which was carefully marked the total number of tickets in packet, in conjunction with the number of Census subdivisions, and also name of clerk last using the packet of tickets. A work-book was also kept containing a complete register of the clerks engaged, with their daily work, to whom the tickets (with their numbers) and the classification division, or table allotted for each particular work, so that in event of any ticket being lost, the responsibility of loss or error could be located. These packets were carefully locked away in cell-presses according to a classified system of Census subdivision localities, so that the person in charge could deliver or replace in its classified position any packet at a moment's notice. Thus all danger of loss or disorder was obviated.

To give the utmost facility to the appointed tabulators special simple tabulating trestle-tables 8 ft. by 3 ft. 6 in. each were provided, each furnished with a lock-drawer underneath, and a vertical frame of ticket-cells fitted on to the back to secure the groups at various stages of the process of tabulating ; two ink-bottles, one for red ink, and one for black ink, were sunk flush with surface at each near corner ; while the surface of the table was divided vertically and horizontally by clearly marked lines, for arranging the tickets in distinct heaps in accordance with the particular classification in process of being carried out.

Much thought was necessary to secure the greatest amount of work by the least amount of labour ; but a few simple rules were devised and printed for this object, and also for preserving uniformity of procedure. The great principle, however, in beginning the work of tabulation relating to any stage was to fix upon thecategory and its subdivisions which were in every case common to several others—a constant, so to speak—and having so determined the category for the initial stage, then to break up the packet of the particular Census subdivision, and carefully arrange the cards at the top or side, as the case may demand, into as many subdivisions as, by previous classification, might be determined. Having distributed them in classified order, under this first category, next to count the number of cards composing each subdivision, at the same time recording the total of each group in the corresponding sub-division of this category in tabulating sheet. Finally, adding all such divisions, to prove that the aggregate agreed with the total number of tickets in the Census subdivision packet. This base of constants for other categories being proved, the tabulator would commence the next category by breaking up and dealing in the same way with each of the subdivisions in succession of the first category or constant, recording and checking with ascertained total as before. When second category was completed, he carefully restored each group of second category to its place, as a constant, in the original subdivision of the first category, and proceeded with the third, fourth, or more categories until all were complete in relation to the constant or first category selected. The small size, smooth surface, and stiffness of the tickets favoured rapidity in sorting and counting in orderly heaps on table along the marked divisions,in the smallest possible space; the latter consideration a matter of no small importance.

The constants common to several other categories—not reckoning sex or locality constant, which of course is preserved by using distinct tabulating sheets—were :—

  1. Age in its fullest subdivision (embracing Conjugal Condition, Education, Instruction, Sickness).

  2. Religions in subdivisions of classified Denominals (embracing Education, special groups of Age).

  3. Birthplaces in subdivision of Country-born (embracing Education, Special Age groups, special grouping under conjugal condition).

  4. Occupations, in subdivisions of Specific Occupation (embracing Special Age groups, Grades, Districts).

By such system the whole of the categories and their varied subdivisions were tabulated and checked in a very satisfactory and orderly manner. All unnecessary handling was obviated, and the greatest possible results were accurately secured with the smallest possible expenditure of labour.

The compilation of the Census subdivision results, under all predetermined categories, with their subdivisions were afterwards aggregated to form results under the various Districts under which it was determined they should be printed, whether in the detailed or summarised forms.

Where the number of cards under ultimate subdivision are very numerous, as in populous countries, the use of automatic ticket-counting machines would be required to facilitate labour ; but in counting the ultimate subdivision groups of a small population like Tasmania, the initial expense of such automatic aids would, upon the whole, cancel the advantage saved in hand counting.

My attention was also directed to the ingenious "Holerith" machine employed so largely in America and elsewhere, whereby the counting under all categories is effected simultaneously by electrical "make-and-break" contacts. But, so far as I was able to learn, the advantages are not so great as might be supposed, where the population is inconsiderable, as every distinct particular under each category must previously be indicated by holes punched by hand. The abbreviated signs on cards, I believe, can be done far more speedily and with greater accuracy and satisfaction.


The results of the Census of 1901, together with the comparisons with the year of the former Census (1891), are presented in the following table :—

Population of the Censuses of 1891 and 1901 compared.
Population.1901. No.1891. No.Increase in 1901 over 1891.
No.Per cent.

Although this comparison shows an increase of 25,508, or an increase of 17.60 per cent. as compared with the Census of 1891, the comparative progress cannot be properly appreciated without reference to corresponding rates of progress in former intercensal periods, as shown in the following table :—

Comparative Progress at various Intercensal Periods since the Year 1841.
Intercensal Periods.Interval Years.Increase.Annual Rate.
Persons No.Per cent. Period.

From the foregoing comparison it will be seen that, as regards absolute increase between any of the six intercensal periods, the greatest progress was made in the decade ending in 1891, the absolute increase being 30,962. The last Census takes up the second position, with an increase of 25,808.

The following places the several intercensal periods in their respective order of importance as regards the actual amount of increase :—

Order.Period.Increase, No.

Inasmuch, however, as the several intercensal periods differ somewhat, the true rate of progress is not fairly indicated by the mere reference to the absolute amount of increase between each period. The following table gives the true order of progress, as determined by the decennial and annual rates of increase, thus :—

Order.Period.Percentage Rate of Increase.

From this analysis it would appear that, although the absolute increase in population the last intercensal period takes up the second position in importance of the six periods compared, it falls into the fourth position when compared by the true relative rate of increase ; the first position being taken up by the first, or earlier, period, and the lowest, absolutely and relatively, by the third period in order of time.


The ordinary method adopted by Statisticians (between the actual points of time when different Censuses are taken) to form an estimate of the population in each year is to add to the last ascertained results of the Census the natural increase of births over deaths, and to add or deduct, as the case may be, the balance of external migration. The results of the balance of births over deaths may be fairly relied upon as correct in most countries where registration is systematically

Carried out ; but there is room for a considerable amount of error arising from imperfect registration of migration in young progressive colonies, where the element of migration is extremely variable, and, as a rule, bears a very high percentage to the total population as compared with the same element relative to the much larger populations of older countries. As a general rule also the balance of migration is by avery smallpercentageagainstthe older thickly populated countries, while, as a rule, the balance, by aconsiderablepercentage, isin favourof young progressive colonies. The following illustration brings this important consideration more clearly into view :—

Balance of Migration during Thirty Years 1860-1 to 1890-1.
Country.Balance of Migration.Percentage.
England and Wales969,5684.850.13
Australasian Colonies996,04681.541.49

At the close of the intercensal period of 1881-1891, in Tasmania, it was found that the yearly estimates of population, based upon the ascertained balances of natural increase and migration, were in excess of the truth by about 6.82 per cent. From this it was inferred that the Customs estimates were in each year of the interval under estimated, as regards Emigration or Departures, to the extent of about 7 per cent. Although during the intercensal period 1891-1901 a correction, making allowance for unrecorded departures, was made to the extent of 7 per cent, it was found at last Census that, at the close of the decade, the latest estimate was nearly 7 per cent. (6.92) in excess of the truth. During this period there was a much greater migratory movement to and from the new mining centres of the West, and it is inferred that the unrecorded departures by sea to other States were abnormally large.


The influx of a continuous stream of immigrants produces at first, to a small population, a much larger proportion of the annual increase than the ultimate major source of increase, viz., the annual rate of natural increase, or the excess of births over deaths. For ex&le, to a population of say 200,000, an influx, in one year, of 20,000 immigrants would represent an annual increase of as much as 10 per cent., while the normal natural increase would be above the average if it amounted to 2 per cent., representing only an increase of 4000. At a later stage, when the population reached say 10,000,000, an influx of 50,000 immigrants in one year would only represent one-half per cent., while the natural increase of say 2 per cent. would add as much to its population in one year as 200,000. This is the true reason why such abnormal annual rates of increase occur in the earlier decades of the wonderful development of these Australasian colonies, and it explains why the high annual rate of increase of 11.27 per cent., in the decade ending in the year 1861 has gradually fallen until it reached an average of only 1.78 per cent., per annum during the decade ending in the year 1901. The following table further illustrates the fluctuating character of the earlier periods of high rates of increase due to influx of immigrants, in young countries, as contrasted with the more normal progress of the United Kingdom with its great density of population, and in which the influence of migration on its annual rate of increase is so comparatively small that it may be altogether ignored.

Decade ending Year.United Kingdom.United States.Canada.Australasia.Tasmania.
Number of Years required to Double Population.
According to mean annual rate of.United Kingdom.United States.Canada.Australasia.Tasmania.
Last Century71.8026.6228.6410.8916.35
Last Decade92.7835.7165.7139.2942.61

The preceding table clearly demonstrates not only that the annual rate of increase of population in the younger countries is rapidly approaching the normal rates of the older and more densely populated centres of population, but also, as regards the latter, there is evidence of another cause in operation, especially during the last decade, having the effect of still further lowering the annual rate of increase of the population. From the beginning of the year 1881 the statistics of the United Kingdom and of the Australasian colonies show unmistakably that a great change has taken place as regards the social conditions of the people, and especially effecting the birth-rate in these countries. My friend, Mr. Coghlan, the distinguished Statistician of New South Wales, has made a special study of this important matter. In his statistical account of "The Seven Colonies of Australasia, 1901-1902" (pp. 502-503), he has made the following important observations :—

"It is a matter of common knowledge that for some years past the birth-rate in Australasia has been declining, and so important is the subject—not only as regards the growth of population, but also as affecting general progress—that in 1899 the author made a special investigation into the question of child-birth in Australia, but more particularly with reference to New South Wales. The conclusions arrived at with respect to that State, however, may be held to obtain for all the others, seeing the conditions of living do not differ materially in any of them. During the course of the investigation it was found, first, that for all women the proportion of fecund marriages is decreasing ; second, that among fecund women the birth-rate is much reduced as compared with what it was twenty years ago. It was also found that the decline had been persistent and regular since 1881, and this restriction of births in a young country like Australia, where immigration is discouraged, is a matter which must have far-reaching results, although its economic effects are only beginning to be seen, and should claim the serious consideration of all thoughtful people."

It is true that the lowering of the birth-rate at once, to some extent, operates in reducing the general death-rate also ; but the serious decline in the rate of natural increase, as shown in the following summary, is a strong additional reason for caution in forming any estimate of the growth of population in these colonies, during the next century :—

Birth-rate, Death-rate, and Natural Rate of Increase in each Quinquennium in Australasia, 1861-1900.
Quinquennium (average rate).Birth-rate.Death-rate.Natural Increase.


The growth of population depends on two causes—firstly, the excess of births over deaths ; and secondly, on the balance of migration. In this State the former is the principal cause of growth and has invariably shown a very much larger rate in the balance of births over deaths than the corresponding rates of the normal populations of older European countries. The difference in favour of this and other Australasian States, by the larger balance of births over deaths, as compared with the older and more densely populated countries, is mainly due to the much lower death-rate of the younger countries.

Since the year 1841 the balance of external migration has been subject to much fluctuation. Within the decades ending in 1851, 1861, and 1891 the balance of migration has been in favour of the State ; but within the decades ending 1871, 1881, and 1891 the balance has been against the State.

In the decennium, 1881-1891, the excess of births over deaths, or natural increase, was 25,001, or 21.60 per cent. ; while in the decennium 1891-1901 this increase has only been 27,987, or 19.08 per cent. During the last decade the birth-rate in the United Kingdom and in these Australasian colonies has declined in a very remarkable degree, and Tasmania has shown no excepto the general experience. Had the birth-rate of the former decade maintained itself in the decade ending in 1901 it is estimated that the births would have numbered 57,106, instead of the actual 48,374 ; that means a loss of 8732 to the population from this cause alone. As a set-off to this, however, there has also been a wonderful fall in the death-rate. During the decade 1881-91 the average death-rate was 16.20 per thousand ; in the decade ending in 1901 the average death-rate fell to 13.13 per thousand. This difference represents a saving of 5138 lives, and a corresponding gain to the population.

During the decade 1881-1891 the balance of migration was in the favour of the Colony, and added 5961, or 5.13 per cent., to the population. In the period now under review, however, the balance was against the State, and caused a loss of 2179, or 1.48 per cent. Had all the influences operating in the decade 1881-1891 maintained themselves in the last decade, it is estimated that the population on last Census day would have numbered 185,840, instead of 172,475 ; that is, it would have exceeded the actual by 13,365, or 7.75 per cent.

The fluctuations in the various causes affecting the growth of population in Tasmania since 1841 are shown more fully in the following comparative table :—

Intercensal Periods., (Per Centage.)
Increase by Births29.0140.3833.3732.6039.0732.97
Decrease by Deaths16.0222.6415.4416.9417.4713.89
Gain by Natural Increase12.9917.7417.9315.6621.6019.08
Migration, Gain26.6710.565.13
Migration, Loss6.170.881.48
Total Increase for Period39.6628.3011.7614.7826.7317.60
Annual Rate, Net Increase3.622.501.131.382.361.64

Although these comparisons with former periods are very useful in gauging the rate of progress which the State has made at different periods, it is necessary also to measure our progress as far as possible by contrast with other countries about the same time. The following table has been prepared with this object in view. The countries selected for comparison are England and Wales, Scotland, the several States of the Commonwealth of Australia, and New Zealand :—

Population Increase in the Decennium, 1891-1901, in various Countries compared.
Country.Population, 1901 (Census).Increase in the Decennium, 1891-1901.
Absolute.Per Cent. for Period.Annual Rate.
England and Wales32,526,0753,523,55012.171.16
New South Wales1,354,846222,61219.661.81
South Australia362,60442,17313.161.25
West Australia184,124134,342269.8513.98
New Zealand815,862147,21122.012.01
Australasia (Seven Colonies)4,594,518742,63019.281.78

The foregoing table gives, at a glance, a clear idea of the relative progress which the Australasian colonies are making as compared with the Mother Country ; the progress, relatively, of the former being still much greater on account of (1) the very much larger rate of natural increase (Victoria during the last decade excepted), and (2) to the balance of migration being largely in their favour.

The following is the order of the countries compared as regards the relative progress made by each within the last decade, Tasmania taking the fifth in order, thus :—(1) Western Australia ; (2) Queensland ; (3) New Zealand ; (4) New South Wales ; (5) Tasmania ; (6) South Australia ; (7) England and Wales : (8) Scotland ; and last, or (9), Victoria.


The rapidity with which the population of young English colonies increases during the earlier stages—for ex&le, doubling in the space of 18 years—is marvelous, when contrasted with even the most vigorous of old densely populated centres. During the period 1841-1901 the United Kingdom only increased by 14,723,649, that is, only at an annual rate of 0.73 per cent. This rate, if continuous, would take 94.7 years to double the population.

The relatively more rapid progress of young countries—especially in the earlier stages of settlement—is mainly due :—(1) Relative to population, to the large proportional influx of immigrants from older centres, and (2) to the favourable hygienic conditions of a thinly populated country, tending to prolong the average life, and consequently to produce a much lower death-rate than is found common in the less favourably crowded centres of population of the Old World.

It cannot be expected, however, that the abnormally high rate of increase can be maintained in these Australasian colonies as the population increases beyond the limits of density of the Pastoral stage. This was referred to by the writer inThe Tasmanian Official Recordfor the year 1892, in the following terms :—

"It is a common fallacy to assume that the present (1881-1891) relative rate of increase in Australasia will be maintained over a long period of years ; for as population grows larger the immigration element will diminish proportionately, unless we assume, what is very improbable, that immigration will continue to increase at the same rate as the total population.

"The death-rate, too, now so favourable, will gradually increase to the normal rate of European countries as the people approach a similar density of population ; for it is now too well established that a more or less high death-rate is always a concomitant of densely populated centres.

"It is more probable, therefore, that the progress of population in Australasia during the next hundred years will follow the curve exhibited in the United States progress between the years 1790 and 1890, rather than that the rate of the last 30 years shall continue to be maintained for such a long period."

These predictions have been fully verified by the results of the last Census as shown in the following table :—

Diminishing Rate of Annual Increase.
Annual Rate Period, 1861-91.Per cent. Period, 1891-1901.
Natural Increase, or excess of births over deaths2.361.62
Excess of Immigration over Emigration1.490.16
Time in years in which the respective rates, if continuous, would double the population18.339.3
United Kingdom.
Total Net Increase from all causes0.890.73
Years required to double population7895


Turning our attention now to the future, and assuming that the annual rate of growth of population during the last decade (1.64) will be maintained without any material change throughout the next 100 years, the following table has been prepared showing the estimated population in single years for the first ten, and thereafter in intervals of ten years. The population of the Commonwealth is given for comparison at intervals of ten years. The annual rate assumed by me for the determination of the latter is taken at 1.73 per cent.

Estimated Population during the Next 100 Years.
Year.Tasmania.Commonwealth.Tasmania's Per cent. Proportion.

I have thus given as briefly as the nature of the subject permits the reasoning upon which elsewhere I have chosen to base my estimate of the growth of population in this State upon the latest rates of annual increase rather than upon averages which include the differing conditions of the earlier periods, involving, as they do, the unreliable disturbing conditions and non-recurring abnormal proportional increases due to influx of immigrants. It is even doubtful if the lower average rates of increase of the last decade can be maintained over so long a period as the next 100 years ; but when we consider that the nearness of the United States of America, with her still vast areas of undeveloped lands, open to the surplus population of Europe, the rapidly growing density of population in the former, and the resulting congestion of their labour market, may favour a diversion of a very much larger proportion of European surplus labour to Australia within the next thirty or forty years.

We have, therefore, good reason for the belief that the higher stage of development in the United States in the coming century may specially favour the progress of the Australasian group.

An estimate prepared by me, based upon the experience of twenty-one great countries, with a population of over 400 millions, demonstrates that the present civilization requires the cultivation of 2.25 acres per head for food and raw products. The present area of the United States is reckoned at about 2291 million acres. Allowing a need of the estimated requirement of cultivated land—viz., 2.25 acres per head—for supplying the whole round of wants of each person, and that three-fourths of her total area are capable of cultivation, then, if her population increases at her present rate of 1.96 per cent. per year, it would be so vast in 119 years (763 million persons) that the produce of every available acre would beIllegiblerequired forhome consumption.The checks to population, however, may be expected to increase, and this limit may be placed further back ; but it is clear that the need to withdraw, more and more, her present enormous export of raw products from external markets will greatly operate in enhancing the value of the virgin soils of the more distant Australasia, and so give an additional spur to her development in the coming years.

Progress of Population in the intervals of the periodic Censuses between the Years 1841 and 1901.
1841. 1st.1847. 2nd.1851. 3rd.1857. 4th.1861. 5th.1870. 6th.1881. 7th.1891. 8th.1901. 9th.1841 to 1901.
Population (Numerical)—
Population (Centesimal)—
Personsper cent.100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00
Malesper cent.68.7068.1761.5056.3555.1253.2152.8652.8851.97
Femalesper cent.31.3031.8338.5043.6544.8846.7947.1447.1248.03
Females to 100 Males45.5446.7059.0675.9881.4384.7389.1889.1292.44
Persons to the square mile, No.1.922.682.683.113.433.794.395.606.58
Persons to the inhabited dwelling, No.7.327.376.255.715.125.505.265.235.05
Percentage Increase or Decrease since last Census—*
Decennial Rate63.46-0.1526.6425.9111.7614.7826.7617.59
Annual Rate5.45-0.002.502.441.131.382.401.642.09
Births since previous Census No.8,7905,78015,39012,92726,53136,12645,20948,374199,217
Deaths since previous Census No5,0113,0349,6966,18212,27618,78120,20820,38795,575
Excess of births over deaths, Census No.3,7792,7465,6946,74514,25517,34525,00127,987103,552
Balance of migration, ditto* No16,169- 27805,6681,740-4,9019685,961-2,17918,707
Net increase of population since previous Census No19,948- 3411,3628,4859,35116,37730,96225,808122,259
Percentage increase or decrease since previous Census, due per year—
Due to natural increase, per cent1.
Due to migration, per cent4.56-1.301.290.53-0.64-0.090.48-0.13
Net increasePer cent5.450.002.502.441.131.382.401.642.09
[* The sign minus (-) indicates decrease ; where there is no sign the figures denote an increase.] [† Prisoners and Military, Sex not specified.]
PROGRESS OF POPULATION IN AUSTRALASIA.—INTER-CENSAL PERIOD 1891-1901., Total Population, including Chinese and enumerated Aborigines.
Rate since 31 Dec. 1861.NUMBERS.Increase or Decrease (-)Rate of Increase Per Year.
1891.1901.Absolute.Per Cent.
3.44New South Wales1,132,234612,562519,6721,354,846710,005644,841222,61297,443125,16919.6615.9124.081.81
2.66South Australia320,431166,801153,630362,604184,422178,18242,17317,62124,55213.1610.5615.981.25
6.35Western Australia49,78229,80719,975184,124112,87571,249134,34283,06851,274269.85278.70256.7313.98
5.42New Zealand668,651355,738312,913815,862429,104386,758147,21173,36673,84522.0120.6223.602.01
3.31Total for Australasia3,851,8882,064,6611,787,2274,594,5182,410,0052,184,513742,630345,346397,28619.2816.7222.221.78


TABLE showing the Distribution and Movement of Population by Electoral Districts in the Intercensal period, 1891-1901.
Divisions and Electoral Districts.Population.Increase or Decrease since 1891.Proportion per cent. to Total Population.
Census, 1891.Census 1901.Numerical.Percental.1891.1901.
North-Eastern Division47,93951,9774,0388.4232.6830.13
North-Western Division27,51534,0596,54423.7818.7619.75
Western & Midland Division.13,08226,08012,99899.358.9215.12
South-Eastern and South-Western Division58,13160,3592,2283.8339.6435.00
The whole State146,667172,47525,80817.60100.00100.00
George Town3,6074,8962,85022.802.462.83
TOTAL N.E. DIVISION47,93951,9774,0388.4232.6830.13
Devon, West5,7347,4836,48828.703.914.34
Devon, East9,0546.17
TOTAL N.W. DIVISION27,51534,0596,54423.7818.7619.75
C&bell Town2,6952,3373581.321.841.35
TOTAL MIDLAND DIVISION.13,08226,08012,99899.358.9215.12
New Norfolk4,2534,76451112.022.902.76
TOTAL S.E. & S.W. DIVISION.58,13160,3592,2283.8339.6435.00

NOTE.—The boundaries and number of Electoral Districts were much altered between the two last Censuses, and hence it is difficult to make strict comparisons between many of the Districts. Taken in groups as bracketed, and by the larger divisions, the comparisons may be regarded as approximately correct.

The order of the various Electoral Districts, showing the greatest relative increase and the least relative decrease since 1891, is shown as follows, beginning with the highest relative increase :—

Increase, per cent.
1. Lyell, Zeehan and Cumberland191.31
2. Devonport, West Devon, East Devon, and Wellington28.70
3. George Town, Ringarooma, and Selby22.80
4. Kingborough and Queenborough18.05
5. Franklin16.79
6. Fingal16.54
7. Glenorchy13.89
8. City of Launceston4.73
9. Evandale2.79
10. New Norfolk1.20
11. Deloraine1.14
Decrease, per cent.
12. City of Hobart1.0
13. C&bell Town1.32
14. Oatlands4.44
15. Longford, Cressy, and Westbury5.46
16. Brighton, Richmond, Sorell, and Glamorgan6.66

From the above summary it will be seen that a third of the districts show a slight decrease, as compared with the previous Census, ranging from 1.0 per cent in the City of Hobart to 6.66 per cent. in the districts of Brighton, Richmond, Sorell, and Glamorgan.

Two-thirds of the districts, however, show increases ranging from 1.14 per cent. in the district of Deloraine to as high as 191.31 per cent. in the new rich mining centres of the West (viz., Lyell and Zeehan, including Cumberland).

The general movement of population, however, is better appreciated when studied in relation to the larger geographical divisions, as in the following summary :—

Relative Progress in the Larger Geographical Divisions.
Increase per cent. since 1891.
1. Western and Midland99.35
2. North-Western23.78
3. North-Eastern8.42
4. South-Eastern and South-Western3.83

From this it would appear that numbers One and Two are above the average increase for the whole State, while the Third and Fourth divisions are much below it.

The following summary shows the absolute increases for the larger divisions. The order of relative progress, however, remains undisturbed, thus :—

Absolute Progress in the Larger Geographical Divisions.
Actual Increase since 1891.
1. Western and Midland12,998
2. North-Western6,544
3. North-Eastern4,038
4. South-Eastern and South-Western2,228


The proportion of population in each one of the larger geographical divisions, in relation to the whole State has been greatly modified since the previous Census by the general trend of migration from the older settled districts to the new centres of the rich silver and copper mining fields of Western Tasmania. Although this movement of population from East to West has been

very large and general, it did not go so far as to disturb the order of relative importance of the larger geographical divisions as ascertained at the previous Census of 1891 ; thus :—

Population of the Larger Geographical Divisions in 1901, as compared with the Year 1891.
Census 1891.Census 1901.
No.Per cent.No.Per cent.
1. South-Eastern and South-Western Division58,13139.6460,35935.00
2. North-Eastern47,93932.6851,97730.13
3. North-Western27,51518.7634,05919.75
4. Western and Midland13,0828.9226,08615.12
Total Population146,667100.00172,475100.00


The absolute extent of aggregation, or centralization, of population of any country, and particularly as regards metropolitan centres, is in a large measure determined by the number of the total population of the country as a whole. The proportion which the capital or metropolitan centre of any country bears either to what is usually termed "urban" centres as a whole, or to the total urban and rural population, is quite an accidental matter, and varies extremely in different countries, in accordance with nature of the prevailing industries and with geographical and physical conditions. Thus, although the population of London in 1901 (4,536,063) only represents 13.95 per cent. of the total population of England and Wales, the total urban population of England and Wales (25,054,268) represents as much as 77.0 per cent. Compare this with New South Wales (Census 1891), where the metropolitan population of Sydney and Suburbs represents as much as 33.85 of the total population ; yet its total urban population is estimated at only 66.17 per cent.

These considerations will enable any one to correctly interpret the following table dealing with the relative growth of urban and rural districts in Tasmania since 1857, as indicated by the metropolitan district of Hobart and Suburbs and other urban districts of over 3000 inhabitants, as contrasted with the growth of rural districts under 3000 inhabitants, thus :—

Progress in Metropolitan, Total Urban, and Rural Districts during Period 1857-1901.
Census.Hobart and Suburbs.Total Urban.†Rural.All.
Absolute Number of Population.
Per cent. to Total Population.
[* Includes the Suburbs of Bellerive and Beltana.] [† Excluding Suburbs.]

The significance of the observations already made regarding aggregations in urban centres as frequently erroneously inferred from restricted attention to the accidental proportions which the capital city bears to the total population is most manifest in the above comparative table. It shows that urban centres of over 3000 inhabitants in Tasmania have gradually declined proportionally to

total population from 32.07 per cent. in 1857 to 24.75 per cent. in 1901. Inversely the rural population between the same periods has increased gradually from 67.93 per cent. in 1857 to 75.25 per cent. in 1901.

Still more marked is the danger of inferring truly the growth of rural and urban populations respectively, from the accidental proportions which the capital city of a country bears to the whole population, as shown by the following illustration :—

Proportion of Population of Capital City and Total Urban Centres to Total Population of the Country., Per centage.
Country.Capital.Total Urban.Rural.All.
England and Wales13.9576.0523.95100
New South Wales33.8566.1533.85100

The difference in favour of the percentages of the rural populations of the two smaller countries would be much greater if the limits of what may fairly be regarded as urban populations were the same in all places under comparison. The limit of the older and more densely populated country is very much higher.

Further information regarding progress in Urban and Rural Districts since the year 1857 is given in the following table :—

Progress in Urban and Rural Districts contrasted during 1857-1901.
Census 1857.Census 1861.Census 1870.Census 1881.Census 1891.Census 1901.
Towns over 3000 Inhabitants, regarded as Urban.
The State81,49289,97799,328115,705146,667172,475
Percentage Proportion to Total Population—
Percentage Increase since last Census—
Urban14.07- 0.1613.8124.3423.23
The State10.4110.3916.4926.7617.60
Percentage Increase since 1857—
The State78.99111.65
Increase per cent. per year since 1857—
The State1.741.72
Cities, Towns, Villages, &c., over 100 Inhabitants.
Cities, Towns, Villages54,95081,84999,108
The State115,705146,667172,475
Percentage Proportion to Total Population—
Cities, Towns, Villages47.4855.7957.46
Percentage Increase since last Census—
Cities, Towns, Villages48.9521.08
The State26.7617.60
Increase per cent. per year—
Cities, Towns, Villages4.061.93
The State2.401.64


The following table has been specially prepared to indicate the comparative rate of growth of population in the two cities, and in the various small centres of population which had been in existence prior to the Census of 1891 ; and also to show, in a general way, the trend of what may be termed the "internal drift of population" as in contradistinction to the "growth by natural increase."

The artificial restriction of comparison to centres of 100 persons and over, however, conceals to some extent the actual or true rate of growth, in the case of those small communities which, during the last Intercensal period, have passed from below to above the limit which the necessities of tabulation restrict recognition as distinct centres considered apart from the population sparsely scattered throughout the country in a less gregarious state.

The nature of the principal industries carried on in the various centres is indicated by letters thus:—

* Indicates a new centre, or that the population was under 100 persons at the time of the previous Census.

PROGRESS of Urban and Rural Centres of Population since 1891.
Cities, Towns, Villages, and Mining Centres, having more than 100 Inhabitants.Population.Since 1891.
Census 1891.Census 1901.Increase.Decrease.
Absolute.Per cent.Absolute.Per cent.
North-Eastern Division293228,65932,8894,23014.76
North-Western Division13149,99910,7967977.97
Midland Division8115,85116,55210,701182.91
S.E. and S.W. Division223135,92338,8612,9388.18
North-Eastern Division—
Launceston City17,20818,0228144.73
Longford—A. & P.1,0841,22313912.80
Scottsdale (Ellesmere)—A.590636467.79
Derby—T.M. & A.273578305111.75
Perth—A. & P.5174427515.91
St. Helens—D. & A.3634104712.94
Fingal—C.M. & D.4253725312.47
St. Marys—M. & A.268281134.85
George Town—W. P.299274258.36
St. Leonards—S.L.254265114.33
Gould's Country—A.*254
Ringarooma—M. & A.11723011396.54
PROGRESS of Urban and Rural Centres of Population since 1891—continued.
Cities, Towns, Villages, and Mining Centres, having more than 100 Inhabitants.Population.Since 1891.
Census 1891.Census 1901.Increase.Decrease.
Absolute.Per cent.Absolute.Per cent.
Carrick, A2812245720.28
North-Western Division—
Devonport, E.5591,8056732,77496953.69
Devonport, W.1,2462,101
Burnie—F. & M.9811,54856757.79
Deloraine—A. & P.895949546.03
Midland Division—
Gormanston, including North Lyell—S. & G.M.*1,760
Strahan—M. & seaport5611,504943168.10
C&bell Town—A.8187358310.15
Pillinger—M. & seaport*637
Oatlands—A. & P.73161811315.46
Bothwell—A. & P.52038413626.15
South-Eastern & South-Western Division—
Hobart City24,90524,6542511.00
New Town—S.H.2,2882,314261.13
Sandy Bay—S.H.1,4431,82137826.19
New Norfolk—F. & Hop.1,0721,151797.36
Wellington Hamlets—S.H.7047767210.23
Glebe Town—S.H.643694517.93
Glenorchy—F. & Hop.588578100.58
Mount Stuart—S.H.*523
Richmond—A. & P.53639514126.31
Geeveston—T.G. & F.*289
Kempton—A. & P.42628813832.39
Sorell—A. & P.2822453713.12
Bridgewater—A. & P.1432147149.6527.79
Swansea—A. & F.29521382
Tea Tree—A. & P.*184
Broadmarsh—A. & P.*166
Colebrook—A. & P., C.M.1891474222.22
Pontville—A. & D.1721145833.70

Centres showing an Increase.

The following centres show rates of increase since previous Census above or below the average rate of increase of the whole State (17.60 per cent.) as indicated in descending order :—

Increase above the average (17.60)24.
Strahan168.10 per cent. since previous Census
Zeehan159.19 per cent. since previous Census
Derby111.75 per cent. since previous Census
Trevallyn106.55 per cent. since previous Census
Ringarooma96.54 per cent. since previous Census
Mathinna91.30 per cent. since previous Census
Forth82.43 per cent. since previous Census
Huonville79.89 per cent. since previous Census
Weldborough69.43 per cent. since previous Census
Beaconsfield67.80 per cent. since previous Census
Bracknell58.41 per cent. since previous Census
Burnie57.79 per cent. since previous Census
Devonport53.69 per cent. since previous Census
Lefroy52.47 per cent. since previous Census
Franklin51.18 per cent. since previous Census
Bridgewater49.65 per cent. since previous Census
Branxholm40.78 per cent. since previous Census
Winkleigh38.51 per cent. since previous Census
Penguin36.36 per cent. since previous Census
Leith31.15 per cent. since previous Census
Cressy29.33 per cent. since previous Census
Chudleigh27.57 per cent. since previous Census
Sandy Bay26.19 per cent. since previous Census
Stanley21.00 per cent. since previous Census
Showing increases below the average for the whole State.
Woodbridge16.57 per cent. since previous Census
Invermay14.51 per cent. since previous Census
Evandale14.26 per cent. since previous Census
St. Helens12.94 per cent. since previous Census
Longford12.80 per cent. since previous Census
Wellingford Hamlets10.23 per cent. since previous Census
Triabunna9.69 per cent. since previous Census
Cornwall8.10 per cent. since previous Census
Glebetown7.93 per cent. since previous Census
Ellesmere7.79 per cent. since previous Census
Mangana7.52 per cent. since previous Census
New Norfolk7.36 per cent. since previous Census
Deloraine6.03 per cent. since previous Census
St. Marys4.85 per cent. since previous Census
Launceston4.73 per cent. since previous Census
Bellerive4.48 per cent. since previous Census
St. Leonards4.33 per cent. since previous Census
Sheffield3.96 per cent. since previous Census
Ulverstone3.10 per cent. since previous Census
* New Town1.13 per cent. since previous Census
Avoca1.10 per cent. since previous Census
[* Exclusive of Moonah. The latter district was formerly included in New Town. If it were included the original district of New Town would have shown an increase of 758, or 33.13 per cent.]

Centres showing a Decrease.

The following 27 centres show a decrease as compared with the previous Census. It is significant, however, that few of the centres showing a positive decrease are to be found in the western or north-western portions of the State, which during the last intercensal period have, as a whole, made remarkable progress :—

Percentage Decrease since last Census.
Glenorchy0.58 per cent. decrease
Hobart, City*1.00 per cent. decrease
Westbury1.11 per cent. decrease
Ramsgate2.98 per cent. decrease
Lovett6.88 per cent. decrease
George Town8.36 per cent. decrease
Breadalbane8.39 per cent. decrease
C&bell Town10.15 per cent. decrease
Waratah10.92 per cent. decrease
Kingston12.05 per cent. decrease
Fingal12.47 per cent. decrease
Latrobe12.42 per cent. decrease
Sorell13.12 per cent. decrease
Wynyard15.34 per cent. decrease
Oatlands15.46 per cent. decrease
Gladstone15.55 per cent. decrease
Perth15.91 per cent. decrease
Ross20.05 per cent. decrease
Carrick20.28 per cent. decrease
Colebrook22.22 per cent. decrease
Richmond26.31 per cent. decrease
Bothwell26.15 per cent. decrease
Swansea27.79 per cent. decrease
Kempton32.59 per cent. decrease
Hamilton34.33 per cent. decrease
Pontville33.70 per cent. decrease
Dundas43.00 per cent. decrease
[Although the CIty of Hobart proper shows a slight decrease as compared with the former Census, the City and Suburbs, or Greater HObart, shows an increase of 1511, or 4.43 per cent. This is a common experience in the history of the growth of all chief centres of population.]

Newly Established Centres.

The following is a list, in the order of their importance, of 16 centres of over 100 inhabitants, which have grown up or have become established since the previous Census :—

Population, No.
Mount Stuart523
Gould's Country254
Tea Tree184

From the foregoing analysis we find that the cities, towns, and villages, &c., over 100 inhabitants, which numbered 79 in 1891, had increased to 88 in 1901 ; i.e., an increase of 9 ; and the population of these centres had apparently increased by 18,666 persons, or 23.21 per cent.

This, however, must be qualified by the consideration that the population of the 20 new centres in 1901, contains also the unknown element under 100 persons which existed in an embryo state in a number of these localities when the previous Census (1891) was taken. Even with this qualification, it is clear on the whole, that the city, town, and village populations have increased at a higher ratio than the residue scattered throughout the State, engaged in the primary industries of farming, mining, or timber-getting.

The highest increase, absolutely and relatively, is to be found in the centres of the new mineral fields in the Western and Midland Division ; and the lowest increase, absolutely and relatively, curiously enough, is to be found in the North-Western Division, where as regards increase in the rural element (under 100 persons) this division stands highest of the four. It is evident that this arises from the very rapid way in which the development of farm-holdings has taken place in this promising and progressive agricultural region of the State.


The first attempt to obtain definite information as regards the habitations of the people was made in the year 1841, when the total number of dwellings recorded was 7758. Of these, 3459 were built of brick or stone, and 3489 of wood. At the last Census, or sixty years afterwards, it was found that the total number of dwellings had increased to 36,470. The population in 1841 was 50,216 ; in 1901 it increased to 172,475. Thus it would appear that while the number of distinct dwellings within this interval has increased 4.70 fold, the population has only increased 3.43 fold. This, no doubt arises from the fact that in the earlier stage of settlement the aggregation of large numbers of military and other persons living in barracks did not require the same number of distinct dwellings as in the altered circumstances of the State at the present time.

This is borne out by reference to the number of persons to each dwelling in 1841 and 1901, respectively ; in the former period the number of persons to each dwelling is found to be as high as 7.32 ; in the latter it is only 5.05.

The normal number of persons to each inhabited dwelling in the United Kingdom has ranged from about 5.33 in 1871, to 5.19 in 1901. In Tasmania during the same period the number of persons to each inhabited dwelling has similarily ranged from 5.50 in 1870 to 5.05 in 1901 ; the average of the later Census years being 5.26 persons per inhabited dwelling. The experience in the Mother Colony of New South Wales, in this respect, has been similar to that of Tasmania.

The two subjoined tables have been prepared to show various particulars relating to the number and character of the dwellings of the people at each Census since the year 1841.

The particulars as far as have been ascertained refer to :—

The number of dwellings.

Nature of occupancy.

Materials employed in Construction.

Rental :—

Number of dwellings under particular denominations as regards cost of annual rental.

Aggregate annual value of rental under the same.

The number of persons living in different classes of dwellings.

Comparative Table showing principal particulars relating to the Habitations of he People at each Census since the Year 1841., NUMERICAL.
Dwellings, &c.Census Years.
Total number7,75810,18711,84415,01818,59320,36423,52929,80136,470
Per square mile0.260.360.430.550.670.690.831.071.30
Persons to each inhabited dwelling7.327.376.255.715.125.505.265.235.05
Occupancy :—
Being built60257356142383170138189118
Increase in inhabited houses since previous Census2,6601,7263,0283,2934823,8106,1666,141
Description (Materials) :—
Brick and stone3,4594,9635,7236,7607,4177,8447,6728,4528,059
Wood, Iron, &c.3,4895,2246,1218,25811,17612,42114,04119,23123,653
Canvas, tents, bark huts, &c.991,1771,8092,173
Total specified6,94810,18711,84415,01818,59320,36422,89029,69233,885
Rooms (Dwellings having):—
One room—brick, stone,1,4902,469717
iron, tents, huts, huts, &c.2,245
Two rooms4,6744,0923,529
Three and four rooms8,43111,62713,028
Five and six rooms3,9815,8808,193
Seven and under ten rooms3,9545,4134,158
Ten rooms and over1,968
Aggregate number of rooms167,198
Rental (annual)No.No.
Under £10 No. Dwellings11,12810,724
£10 to £20 No. dwellings7,54111,760
£20 to £30 No. dwellings6,6736,099
£30 to £40 No. dwellings2,386
£40 to £50 No. dwellings2,6921,119
£50 to £60 No. dwellings714
£60 to £70 No. dwellings288
£70 to £80 No. dwellings206
£80 to £90 No. dwellings122
£90 to £100 No. dwellings45
£100 and over No. dwellings460351
Total dwellings specified28,49433,814
Total dwellings29,80136,470
Aggregate rental (annual) :—£
Under £10 Amount52,861
£10 to £20 Amount153,856
£20 to £30 Amount138,933
£30 to £40 Amount77,421
£40 to £50 Amount46,931
£50 to £60 Amount36,712
£60 to £70 Amount17,675
£70 to £80 Amount14,897
£80 to £90 Amount9,796
£90 to £100 Amount4,094
£100 and over Amount55,974
Total specified only609,150
Persons living in :—
C&ing out8113777
Comparative Table showing principal particulars relating to the Habitations of he People at each Census since the Year 1841., CENTESIMAL.
Dwellings, &c.CENSUS YEARS.
Dwellings :—
Total number100100100100100100100100100
Occupancy :—
Being built7.765.634.744.140.440.830.580.630.32
Increase in Inhabited Houses since previous Census38.7818.1326.9323.012.7521.1128.2121.91
Brick and stone49.7948.7248.3245.0138.8938.5233.5128.6523.79
Wood, Iron, &c.50.2151.2851.6854.9960.1161.0061.3565.2169.80
Canvas tents, bark huts, &c.0.485.146.146.41
TOTAL SPECIFIED100100100100100100100100100
Rooms—Dwellings having—
One room Brick, stone, iron, &c.6.618.382.11
One room Tents, huts, &c.6.64
Two rooms20.7413.8710.43
Three and Four rooms37.4239.4338.50
Five and Six rooms17.6819.9521.22
Seven and under Ten rooms17.5518.3712.28
Ten rooms and over5.82
Under £10 No. of dwellings39.0531.72
£10 to £20 No. of Dwellings26.4634.78
£20 to £30 No. of Dwellings23.4218.05
£30 to £40 No. of Dwellings7.06
£40 to £50 No. of Dwellings9.453.30
£50 to £60 No. of Dwellings2.11
£60 to £70 No. of Dwellings0.85
£70 to £80 No. of Dwellings0.61
£80 to £90 No. of Dwellings0.36
£90 to £100 No. of Dwellings0.13
£100 and over No. of Dwellings1.621.03
Aggregate rental—(Annual Amount)
Under £108.68
£10 to £2025.26
£20 to £3022.81
£30 to £4012.71
£40 to £507.70
£50 to £606.03
£60 to £702.90
£70 to £802.44
£80 to £901.61
£90 to £1000.67
£100 and over9.19
Persons living in—
C&ing out0.070.080.04

From the preceding tables we may perceive that in nearly every respect there has been a great improvement in the condition of the people, as indicated by the character of the habitations in which they live.

Inhabited Houses.—The number of inhabited houses (34,165) has increased by 6141, or 21.91 per cent., since the previous Census. This is a larger absolute increase than in any previous intercensal period, with the exception of the increase in the very prosperous period 1881-91, which was a little higher, viz., 6166.

As regards the character of the dwellings themselves, as indicated by the number of rooms per dwelling, and the number of persons living in improved dwellings, both as regards accommodation and value, the improvement at the last Census is very marked. The increasing proportion of those living in dwellings of Three Rooms and over is very noticeable, thus :—

Percentage Proportion of Dwellings having Three Rooms and over.
188172.65 per cent.
189177.75 per cent.
190180.82 per cent.

This evidence of improvement in the material condition of the people is also confirmed by reference to the proportion of inhabited dwellings having an annual rental value of £10 and over. Thus in 1891 the percentage proportion of dwellings assessed at a rental value of £10 and over was 60.95 per cent. of all dwellings ; in 1901 this proportion was increased to 68.28 per cent.

These two factors are the best indices which we could select for determining the condition of the broad masses of the people. They indicate, most unmistakably, that a vast improvement in the homes of the people has taken place, and the figures shown also represent a very large percentage of the better class of dwellings when compared with the manner in which the masses of the people are lodged in the great cities of the United Kingdom. In Glasgow, for ex&le, Mulhall states on the authority of Mr. Hoey, that only 30.04 per cent. of the people were lodged in houses of three rooms and over in the year 1889. The importance of increased house room, from a health point of view, was at the same time clearly proved by Mr. Hoey in a paper read by him at the British Association, 1889, by the following illustration of the death-rate in that city, referable to the more or less crowded modes of lodgement, thus :—

Living inNumber of Souls.Death-rate per 1000.
One room133,00035.0
Two rooms235,00027.7
Three to four rooms158,00019.5
Five or more rooms11.2

The superior condition of the mass of the people in Tasmania, as regards the class of dwellings occupied by them, is also strikingly borne out when compared with the class of dwelling in which the mass of people in England and Wales were lodged in the year 1886, thus —

Percentage of Inhabited Dwellings of the Annual Value of £20 and over.
England and Wales, 188615.35 per cent.
Tasmania, 190133.50 per cent.

The vast difference between the lodgement of the masses of the people in a crowded city like Glasgow and in Tasmania is shown by the following contrast :—

Living inTasmania, 1901.Glasgow, 1889.
Per cent.Per cent.
One room8.8525.28
Two rooms10.4344.68
Three to four rooms38.5030.04
Five and more rooms42.32



A similar contrast could be furnished also in favour of the sister States of Australasia. No better index of the improved condition of the mass of the people of these States could be given than that afforded by the foregoing contrasts, wherein it is shown that about 20 per cent. of the lower industrial class have, by improved local conditions, been raised into the class next above them in social order, in Europe.

The distribution, density and other particulars relating to Dwellings in the various Electoral Districts are best studied in tabular form, as follows :—

Dwellings classified according to Distribution, Density, &c., in Electoral Districts.
Inhabited Dwellings.Dwellings per Square Mile.Persons to each Dwelling.Percentage of Dwellings.
No.Per cent. to Total.Tents.Having One Room only.Under £10 Annual Rental.
North-Eastern Division—
Launceston (City)3,3239.73617.705.42Nil.0.331.84
George Town9922.904.344.933.93*4.3344.25
Total N.-E. Division10,12029.631.725.132.915.4928.92
North-Western Division—
Devon, West1,3593.961.755.502.505.8134.87
Total N.-W. Division6,41518.771.085.315.667.6736.93
Midland Division—
C&bell Town4981.450.554.694.226.8347.19
Total Midland Division6,40218.740.884.0721.4624.8838.41
South-Eastern & South-Western Division—
Hobart (City)4,47813.112262.005.50Nil.0.422.26
New Norfolk8842.582.075.3810.07†16.9764.25
Total S.E. & S.W. Division11,22832.861.795.371.913.0426.45
THE WHOLE STATE34,165100.001.305.056.648.7531.72
[* Indicates chief mining centres.] [†Hop-growing centres.]


To ascertain the number of persons living at each age period is one of the most important objects of a Census inquiry.

The knowledge which has enabled the higher civilised communities to accurately gauge and provide for the better education of the young ; the maintenance and improvement of the general health ; the humane provision for the support of the widow and orphan ; the care of the young and helpless in mines and factories ; just electoral representation, and many other important matters relating to the welfare of the people, all depend, most intimately, upon the accuracy with which we gauge the number of the living and dying at each age of life.

Owing to various causes—although fairly accurate results are obtained for the quinquennial and decennial groups of ages—the Census method of inquiry has never been able to furnish, directly, a strictly accurate statement of the ages of the peopleat each single year of life.

As to the statement of the exact age at each year of life, many persons are careless ; some, at the advanced ages, do not remember to a year or two the correct age. Persons of extreme old age are in some cases inclined to exaggerate their age, while those between 20 and 40 have a tendency to understate their age to a small extent. Males verging upon the age of 21, in many cases, state their age as 21. This may be due to a desire to avoid difficulties in the case of minors about, to marry, or where there is undue eagerness to obtain the electoral rights of manhood suffrage. Upon the whole there is disclosed by the Tasmanian Census, as in the Censuses of all other countries, a well marked tendency among such people to put themselves down at the nearest round period, notably at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 ; and in lesser degree at the intervening nodes, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75, 85. The round decennial periods seem to act like attracting cores round which the unconscientious and those whose ages are imperfectly known, segregate or cluster at the expense of the one or two contiguous years ending in the lower 9, or in the higher 1, especially the latter. The constancy of these slight false nodes was graphically illustrated by me at the last Census, and they correspond very closely with the results as obtained by the Census of 1901, as may be seen by the following illustration :—

Segregation of Ages at Decennial Periods, 30 to 80, at the Expense of the Contiguous Years.

To some extent the yearly variations in the balance of migration and natural increase of births over deaths may account for some proportion of the irregularities from the law of decrease in each succeeding year ; still it is evident, from the intensity and regularity of the segregation at the decennial nodes that they are mainly due to the causes referred to.

Although it would appear, therefore, that the number of persons livingat each single year of agecannot directly be ascertained exactly from the figures actually obtained from Census Schedules, the statistician can arrive at a very close approximation of the truth by the aid of the more accurate quinquennial and decennial groupings. In practice this method of determining the number of persons actually living at each single year of age has been found to approximate very closely to the truth, and to afford a practically safe foundation, in the hands of the skilled actuary, for the safe conduct of all matters relating to annuities and life insurance.

For Health Standards and other useful purposes, the information respecting ages, gained by the ordinary quinquennial groupings, fulfils all the necessary conditions with the utmost perfection.

With these preliminary observations regarding ages, we may now proceed to single out the more important generalizations for consideration and comparison.

Of the 172,475 persons returned at the Census of 1901, the ages of 172,328 persons (89,504 males—82,824 females) were specifically recorded in the householders' schedules, of which the following is a correct summary, by quinquennial and other useful age-groupings :—

AGES OF THE PEOPLE, 1901., Showing the Numbers and Proportions of Persons and Sexes under various Age-Groups.
All Ages172,47589,62482,851
Specified Ages172,32889,50482,824100.00100.00100.00
Under 5 years20,86510,70210,16312.1211.9712.28
65 and over7,0233,8293,1944.074.263.84
7-14 (school age)30,29415,28215,01217.5817.0718.12
20-40 (soldier's age)53,72428,22125,50331.1831.5437.64
15-45 (age of fertility)81,91542,88239,03347.5347.9147.11
21 years and over (adults)86,39945,96140,43850.1351.3548.82
20-60 (worker's age)79,37542,04737,32846.0546.9745.08
Under 5 years20,86510,70210,16312.1211.9712.28
85 and over3461991470.200.220.17
Unspecified children
Unspecified adults and altogether147120270.170.130.03

The above summary gives in a convenient form all the most useful generalizations relating to age. To make it still more serviceable for general information the whole of the population, excluding the 147 unspecified, are also grouped approximately under headings, which convey in a more natural way


This manner of grouping was introduced by the late Mr. Hayter in his most excellent Report on the Census of Victoria for the year 1881.

the composition of the people as determined by age and sex, as in the following summary :—

Population by Natural Age-Groups.—Census 1901.
Natural Groups.Numerical.Centesimal.
Infants under 1 year4,6062,3332,2732.692.622.75
Children 1 to 5 years16,2598,3697,8909.439.359.53
Boys and girls, 5 to 15 years43,16021,80921,35125.0524.3725.78
Youths and maidens, 15 to 20 years18,4519,3889,06310.7110.4910.94
Young men and women, 20 to 30 years30,24715,53714,71017.5517.3617.75
Middle-aged men and women, 30 to 50 years40,07121,71718,35423.2524.2622.18
Old men and women, 50 years and over19,53410,3519,13311.3211.5511.07

Contrast of Principal Age-Groups with former Census Periods.

The following Summary is designed to show how far the proportion of persons living at the more important Age-Groups in 1901, agree with or differ from similar groups at the three previous Censuses, 1870, 1881, and 1891 :—

Under 5 years14,30216,19121,46620,86514.4014.0314.6912.12
5 to 65 years80,66693,578117,884144,44081.2180.0980.7183.81
65 and over4,3605,6236,7277,0234.394.884.604.07
7 to 14 (school age)19,32224,45130,29416.7016.7417.58
21 years and over (adults)55,76472,63386,39948.1949.5150.13
Under 5 years7,1858,12610,83910,70213.5913.3414.0811.97
5 to 65 years42,52048,91661,85374,97380.4680.2880.3383.77
65 and over3,1483,8824,2983,8295.956.385.894.26
20 to 40 years (soldier's age)10,86215,80524,67828,22120.5525.9432.0531.54
21 years and over (adults)30,84240,03745,96150.4351.6251.35
20 to 60 years (worker's age)22,43125,57634,71542,04741.8245.0846.98
Under 5 years7,1178,06510,62710,16315.3214.8115.3812.28
5 to 65 years38,14644,66255,83169,46782.0882.0181.1283.88
65 and over1,2121,7412,6293,1942.603.183.503.84
15 to 45 years (fertile age)24,17830,57939,03344.4044.2747.11
21 years and over (adults)24,92232,59840,43845.7047.1748.82

In the foregoing table the proportion of persons living under 5 years and over 65 years respectively, is singled out specially, as the proportion of children and aged people in a community largely determines the true significance of average. Birth-rates and Death-rates, which are commonly calculated on the basis of the total population, without necessary qualifications as to the age-composition upon which the value of such averages chiefly depends for comparative purposes.

One of the most noticeable points in this comparison with former periods is the considerable fall in the number of children living under the age of five years as compared with the Census year 1891, notwithstanding the increase of 17.61 per cent. in the total population. The proportion of this important age-group to the whole population—12.12 per cent.—is much lower than recorded in any previous Census in Tasmania.

The lowered proportion of this important age-group at the last Census is undoubtedly due to the remarkable fall in the Birth-rate during the last decade, and especially during the last five years of the decade. During the same period a similar experience of this wonderful decline in the birth-rate has been observed in nearly all civilised countries, and particularly so in the United Kingdom, and in the States of Australia and New Zealand.

Mr. Coghlan, the thoughtful and accomplished Statistician of New South Wales, in his latest issue of "The Seven Colonies of Australasia," has drawn particular attention to this grave change in the social condition of the people in the following terms :—

"It is a matter of common knowledge that for some years past the birth-rate has been declining in the colonies, and so important is the subject, not only as regards the growth of the population but also as affecting the general progress, that in 1899 the author (Mr. Coghlan) made a special investigation into the question of childbirth in Australia, but more particularly with reference to New South Wales. The conclusions arrived at with respect to that colony, however, may be held to obtain for all the others, seeing that the conditions of living do not differ materially in any of them. During the course of the investigation it was found, first, that for all women the proportion of fertile marriages is decreasing ; second, that amongst fertile women the birth-rate is much reduced as compared with what it was twenty years ago ; and third, that Australian-born women are not so fertile as the European women who have emigrated to the colonies, although how far this is due to natural sterility, and how far to prevention, it is impossible to say. It was also found that the decline had been persistent and regular since 1881, and this restriction of births in a young country like Australia, where immigration is discouraged, is a matter which must have far-reaching results, although its economic effects are only beginning to be seen, and should claim the serious consideration of all thoughtful people."

If we now turn to the proportion of persons of 21 years of age and over (adults)—we find at the last Census that they represent almost exactly half the population (50.18 per cent.) ; persons between 5 and 65 years of age represent 83.81 per cent. ; and the group 65 and over represents

4.26 per cent. of the total population. Thus it appears that the two great extremes, 0-5 and 65 and over, both show a decline in their proportions, as compared with former Census periods ; while the great intervening group, 5-65, shows a markedly increased proportion to the whole. Although upon the whole the males at "Worker's age"—20-60—preserve nearly the same proportion as at the previous Census, the proportion living at the most effective age-period 20-40, or "Soldier's age," shows a slight decline. It is probable that this decline at the most vigorous age, as regards the male population, is due to the smaller demand for labour locally since days when a larger amount of railway and other public works were being carried on throughout various parts of the State. The greater attraction for common labour in the mining centres of Western Australia, and the considerable migration to South Africa no doubt has drawn from Tasmania a considerable number of young men at this the most effective age-group.


The full significance of the proportions at particular age-groups, however, can only be appreciated by comparisons with other countries. But even then caution must be used in drawing inferences from particular cases. A relatively low or high proportion of any age-group may be the effect of very different causes. This applies particularly to age-group proportion 20-65. In Western Australia, the high proportion of group 20-65, viz., 62.20 per cent., is mainly the result of theintrusion of an abnormally large number of immigrantsdrawn from other countries. In France an abnormally high proportion is maintained within the same age-group,owing to a continuous and abnormally low birth-ratetending to produce an almost stationary population.

Another cause tending to increase the proportions of the older age-groups may be found in countries where, owing to climatic or other causes, the death-rate of children under 5 years is excessively high.

Thus, immigration, a stationary population caused by a low rate of fertility, and a prevailing high death-rate among children, may equally be potent in producing an abnormally high proportion at the higher age-groups.

On the other hand, a high rate of fertility tends to diminish the proportion of ages at all the higher age-groups.


The two following tables have been prepared to illustrate more particularly the effects upon age-group proportions arising from differing causes as indicated in previous remarks :—

Proportions at Five Age-Periods compared., Persons.
Census. 1901.0-5.0-20.20-45.45-65.65 & over.All specified age.Annual Rate of Increase—Preceding decade.*
Queensland †1,90112.5333.8638.8612.162.59100.002.48
New South Wales1,90111.7534.7037.8312.293.43100.001.81
South Australia*1,90111.0535.6736.3312.844.11100.001.25
Western Australia1,90111.2524.7652.0310.171.79100.0013.98
New Zealand1,90111.2433.1037.9713.614.08100.002.01
Ideal Life Table—Stationary Population §9.0224.4836.0421.568.90100.00
[* Including Half-Castes.] [† Including Aborigines.] [‡ Including New Zealand.] [§ Text Book, Institute of Actuaries—G. King, 1887.]


A more extended comparison of the composition of the population, by ages, is given in the following table :—

Proportions of Persons, Males and Females, at important Age-Periods compared.
Persons.Persons at Worker's age, 20-65. Per cent. to Total Persons. Specified ages.Males at Soldier's age, 20-40. Per cent. to Total Males. Specified ages.Females at Fertile age, 15-45. Per cent. to Total Females. Specified ages.
Census 1901.0-15.15-45.45 & over.All specified age.
New Zealand1,90133.3648.9517.60100.0051.5832.1650.04
South Australia*1,90135.6447.4116.95100.0049.1730.0247.79
New South Wales1,90136.0048.2815.72100.0050.1231.6148.63
Queensland †1,90136.9248.3314.75100.0051.0234.1646.78
Western Australia1,90128.9759.0711.96100.0062.2048.8353.12
Ideal Life Table—Stationary Population §25.5144.0330.46100.0057.60
[* Including Half-Castes.] [† Including Aborigines.] [§ Text Book, Institute of Actuaries—G. King, 1887.]

From these two tables it would appear that France affords the best ex&le of a comparatively stationary population ; and it is interesting to observe how closely its proportions, at the various age-groups, correspond with those of an Ideal Stationary Population, as determined by George King ("Text Book, Institute of Actuaries, 1887").

Comparative Statement showing proportion of the Population living within principal Age-Periods in each of the six States of Australasia and New Zealand, exclusive of Aborigines (Census 1901)., NUMERICAL.
New South Wales.Victoria.Queensland.†South Australia.*Western Australia.Tasmania.Commonwealth.New Zealand.Australasia.
All ages1,354,8461,201,070503,266362,604184,124172,4753,778,385772,7194,551,104
Persons under 5 years158,861131,94862,62640,07720,67520,865435,05286,806521,858
Persons 5 to 15 years327,814276,538121,83989,16032,57243,160891,083170,9611,062,044
Persons 15 to 65 years818,544722,221302,190218,429127,240101,2802,289,904482,9592,772,863
Persons 65 and over465,73166,05112,91014,9383,3227,023150,81731,353154,170
Persons 7 to 14 (school age)231,095195,73585,39062,78622,79930,294628,099
Persons 21 years and over (adults)700,480647,689258,315185,853114,39086,3991,993,126412,3952,305,521
Persons under 5 years158,861131,94862,62640,07720,67520,865435,05286,806521,858
Persons 5 to 10 years166,135142,54663,53745,36817,74722,024457,35785,736543,093
Persons 10 to 15 years161,679133,99258,30243,79214,82521,136433,72685,225518,951
Persons 15 to 50 years141,159118,58647,27940,16912,93718,451378,58184,814463,395
Persons 20 to 25 years127,266108,18146,78734,18119,12016,410351,94583,156435,101
Persons 25 to 30 years112,31698,27942,66128,02424,49913,837319,61668,540388,156
Persons 30 to 35 years99,29394,78439,14825,31322,14311,998292,67956,966349,645
Persons 35 to 40 years93,92890,11236,16623,22617,76311,479272,67445,518318,192
Persons 40 to 45 years78,36670,65829,42320,96712,1139,740221,26738,936260,203
Persons 45 to 50 years57,33945,93020,60316,3107,3716,854154,40733,131187,538
Persons 50 to 55 years44,94235,92616,37412,3405,1315,176119,88927,404147,293
Persons 55 to 60 years35,01030,49612,9499,8813,4883,88195,70523,674119,379
Persons 60 to 65 years28,92529,26910,8008,0182,6753,45483,14120,820103,961
Persons 65 to 70 years22,24229,9206,5565,9231,6712,61368,92516,18885,113
Persons 70 to 75 years12,97420,1213,6234,5629712,03344,2848,58452,868
Persons 75 to 80 years6,4229,9681,6642,5524231,27022,2993,96426,263
Persons 80 to 85 years3,4574,5167971,34419676111,0711,90212,973
Persons 85 and over1,4781,526270557613464,2387154,953
Specified ages100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00
Persons under 5 years11.7511.0212.5311.0511.2512.1211.5511.2411.49
Persons 5 to 15 years24.2523.1024.3924.5917.7225.0523.6522.1223.39
Persons 15 to 65 years60.5760.3560.4960.2569.2458.7660.8062.5661.11
Persons 65 and over3.435.502.594.111.794.073.994.084.01
Persons 7 to 14 (school age)17.0916.3617.0917.3112.4117.5816.67
Persons 21 years and over (adults)52.1554.1351.7151.2462.2250.1352.9253.4050.80
Persons under 5 years11.7511.0212.5311.0511.2512.1211.5511.2411.49
Persons 5 to 10 years12.2911.9112.7212.519.6512.7612.1411.1111.96
Persons 10 to 15 years11.9611.1911.6712.088.0712.2911.5111.0111.43
Persons 15 to 20 years10.459.919.4711.087.0410.7110.0510.9810.22
Persons 20 to 25 years9.429.039.369.4310.409.529.3410.779.58
Persons 25 to 30 years8.318.218.547.7313.338.038.498.898.55
Persons 30 to 35 years7.357.927.836.9812.056.967.777.387.70
Persons 35 to 40 years6.957.537.246.419.666.667.245.897.01
Persons 40 to 45 years5.805.915.895.786.595.655.885.045.77
Persons 45 to 50 years4.243.844.134.504.013.984.104.294.13
Persons 50 to 55 years3.323.003.283.402.793.003.183.553.24
Persons 55 to 60 years2.592.552.592.731.912.252.543.072.62
Persons 60 to 65 years2.142.482.162.211.462.002.212.702.29
Persons 65 to 70 years1.642.501.311.630.911.511.832.101.88
Persons 70 to 75 years0.961.680.731.260.521.
Persons 75 to 80 years0.470.830.330.700.230.740.590.520.58
Persons 80 to 85 years0.250.370.160.370.100.440.290.250.28
Persons 85 and over0.
Infants and children, 0 to 5 years.11.7511.0212.5311.0511.2512.1211.5511.2411.49
Boys and girls, 5 to 15 years24.2523.1024.3924.5917.2225.0523.6522.1223.39
Youths and maidens, 15 to 20 years19.459.919.4711.087.0410.7110.0510.9810.22
Young persons, 20 to 30 years17.7317.2417.9017.1623.7317.5517.8319.6618.13
Middle-aged persons, 30 to 50 yrs.24.3425.2025.0923.6732.3123.2524.9922.6024.61
Elderly persons, 50 to 65 years8.
Aged persons, 65 and over3.435.502.594.111.794.073.994.084.01
[* Exclusive of both Half-Castes (690) and Aborigines.] [† Including Aborigines (6670).]
Comparative Statement showing proportion of the Male Population living within principal Age-Periods in each of the Six States of Australasia and New Zealand (Census 1901) exclusive of Aborigines., NUMERICAL.
New South Wales.Victoria.Queensland.†South Australia.*Western Australia.Tasmania.Commonwealth.New Zealand.Australasia.
All ages710,005603,720280,092184,422112,87589,6241,980,738405,9922,386,720
Males under 5 years80,30866,78631,62620,26010,44110,702220,12344,324264,447
Males 5 to 15 years165,771139,42561,70344,94916,39621,809450,05386,414536,467
Males 15 to 65 years434,325358,136175,509111,87683,51053,1641,216,520255,6041,472,124
Males 65 and over27,03836,8177,9357,3372,2593,82985,21519,218104,433
Males 7 to 14 years (school age).116,77298,82743,27031,58711,44915,282317,187
Males 21 years and over (adults)378,186325,643154,29195,58876,72445,9611,076,393223,8071,300,200
Males 20 to 40 years (soldier's age)223,652189,37594,53755,37054,94928,221646,104130,498776,602
Males under 5 years80,30866,78631,62620,26010,44110,702220,12344,324264,447
Males 5 to 10 years84,18972,05132,26422,7568,89111,160231,31143,314274,625
Males 10 to 15 years81,58267,37429,43922,1937,50510,649218,74243,100261,842
Males 15 to 20 years70,42358,88224,14820,0077,0889,388189,93642,456232,392
Males 20 to 25 years62,44850,57225,19716,64111,8418,261174,96041,196216,156
Males 25 to 30 years56,27345,46124,10213,77115,8227,276162,70535,307198,012
Males 30 to 35 years52,59646,62422,93512,94514,8456,422156,36729,694186,061
Males 35 to 40 years52,33546,71822,30312,01312,4416,262152,07224,301176,373
Males 40 to 45 years44,93037,10418,56211,3718,7225,273125,96221,589147,551
Males 45 to 50 years33,33824,13013,1559,0335,2203,76088,63619,134107,770
Males 50 to 55 years25,61518,33610,2746,7673,4532,79767,24215,41382,655
Males 55 to 60 years19,63415,3398,0085,3362,3111,99652,62413,71166,335
Males 60 to 65 years16,73314,9706,8253,9921,7671,72946,01612,80358,819
Males 65 to 70 years13,00516,0804,1422,8721,1011,29238,49210,16048,652
Males 70 to 75 years7,77211,7722,2372,2826921,12325,8785,34831,226
Males 75 to 80 years3,5785,7389591,29029075612,6112,28514,896
Males 80 to 85 years1,8832,4524546461404596,0341,0507,084
Males 85 and over800775143247361992,2003752,575
Specified ages100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00
Males under 5 years11.3511.1111.4310.989.2711.9711.1610.9311.12
Males 5 to 15 years23.4423.1922.3024.3714.5724.3622.8321.3122.56
Males 15 to 65 years61.3959.5763.4160.6874.1859.4161.6963.0061.62
Males 65 and over3.826.122.863.971.984.264.324.714.40
Males 7 to 14 years (school age).16.5116.4415.6417.1210.1617.0716.08
Males 21 years and over53.4554.1755.7551.8268.1451.3554.5855.1854.71
Males 20 to 40 years (soldier's age)31.6131.5034.1630.0248.8331.5432.7632.1631.66
Males under 15 years of age11.3511.1111.4310.989.2711.9611.1610.9311.12
Males 5 to 10 years11.9011.9911.6612.347.9012.4711.7410.6811.55
Males 10 to 15 years11.5411.2110.6412.036.6711.9011.0910.6311.01
Males 15 to 20 years9.959.808.7210.886.2910.509.6310.479.78
Males 20 to 25 years8.338.419.109.0210.529.238.8710.159.09
Males 25 to 30 years9.957.568.717.4714.
Males 30 to 35 years7.437.768.297.0213.197.187.937.327.82
Males 35 to 40 years7.407.778.066.5111.067.007.715.997.42
Males 40 to 45 years6.356.176.716.167.755.896.395.326.21
Males 45 to 50 years4.724.014.754.904.634.204.504.714.53
Males 50 to 55 years3.623.053.713.673.063.123.413.803.48
Males 55 to 60 years2.772.552.892.892.052.232.673.382.79
Males 60 to 65 years2.372.492.472.161.571.992.333.162.47
Males 65 to 70 years1.842.681.491.560.971.441.952.502.05
Males 70 to 75 years1.101.960.811.230.611.251.311.311.31
Males 75 to 80 years0.500.950.350.700.250.840.640.560.63
Males 80 to 85 years0.270.410.160.350.120.510.310.250.30
Males 85 and over0.
Males Infants and children, 0 to 15 years11.3511.1111.4310.989.2711.9711.1610.9311.12
Boys, 5 to 15 years23.4423.2022.3024.3714.5724.3622.8321.3122.56
Youths, 15 to 20 years9.959.808.7210.886.2910.509.6310.479.78
Young men, 20 to 30 years16.7815.9717.8116.4924.5817.3617.1218.8517.42
Middleaged, 30 to 50 years.25.9025.7127.8124.5936.6324.2726.5323.3425.98
Elderly, 50 to 65 years8.768.099.078.726.687.288.4110.348.74
Aged, 65 and over3.826.122.863.971.984.264.324.714.40
[* Exclusive of both Half-Castes and Aborigines.] [† Including Aborigines (3862).]
Comparative Statement showing proportion of the Female Population living within principal Age-Periods in each of the Six States of Australasia and New Zealand (Census 1901.) exclusive of Aborigines.
New South Wales.Victoria.Queensland.†South Australia.*Western Australia.Tasmania.Commonwealth.New Zealand.Australasia.
All ages644,841597,350223,174178,18271,24982,8511,797,647366,7272,164,374
Females under 5 years78,55365,16231,00019,81710,23410,163214,92942,484257,413
Females 5 to 15 years162,043137,11360,13644,21116,17621,351441,03084,547525,577
Females 15 to 65 years384,219364,085126,681106,55343,73048,1161,073,384227,3681,300,752
Females 65 and over19,53529,2344,9757,6011,0633,19465,60212,13577,737
Females 7 to 14 (school age).114,32396,90842,12031,19911,35015,012310,912
Females 21 years and over319,561321,993104,02190,26537,66640,438813,944188,5641,002,508
Females 15 to 45 (fertile age)313,323295,239104,21785,13237,81639,033874,760183,3871,058,147
Females under 5 years78,55365,16231,00019,81710,23410,163214,92942,484257,413
Females 5 to 10 years81,94670,49531,27322,6128,85610,864226,04642,422268,468
Females 10 to 15 years80,09766,61828,86321,5997,32010,487214,98442,125257,109
Females 15 to 20 years70,73659,70423,13120,1625,8499,063188,64442,358231,002
Females 20 to 25 years64,81857,60921,59017,5407,2798,149176,98541,960218,945
Females 25 to 30 years56,04352,81818,55914,2538,6776,561156,91133,233190,144
Females 30 to 35 years46,69748,16016,21312,3687,2985,576136,31227,272163,584
Females 35 to 40 years41,59343,39413,86311,2135,3225,217120,60221,217141,819
Females 40 to 45 years33,43633,55410,8619,5963,3914,46795,30517,347112,652
Females 45 to 50 years24,00121,8007,4487,2772,1513,09465,77113,99779,768
Females 50 to 55 years19,32717,5906,1005,5731,6782,37952,64711,99164,638
Females 55 to 60 years15,37615,1574,9414,5451,1771,88543,0819,96353,044
Females 60 to 65 years12,19214,2993,9754,0269081,72537,1258,01745,142
Females 65 to 70 years9,23713,8402,4143,0515701,32130,4336,02836,451
Females 70 to 75 years5,2028,3491,3862,28027991018,4063,23621,642
Females 75 to 80 years2,8444,2307051,2621335149,6881,67911,367
Females 80 to 85 years1,5742,064343698563025,0378525,889
Females 85 and over678751127310251472,0383402,378
Specified ages100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00
Females under 5 years12.1910.9413.9211.1214.3712.2811.9711.5911.91
Females 5 to 15 years25.1623.0027.0024.8222.7325.8024.5723.0724.31
Females 15 to 65 years39.6461.0856.8659.8061.4358.0859.8062.0360.17
Females 65 and over3.014.982.224.261.473.843.663.313.61
Females 7 to 14 (school age)17.7416.2718.9117.5115.9418.1217.32
Females 21 years and over49.5854.0546.7150.6752.8848.8245.3451.4446.38
Females 15 to 45 (fertile age)48.6349.5346.7847.7953.1247.1148.7450.0448.95
Females under 5 years12.1910.9413.9211.1214.3712.2711.9711.5911.91
Females 5 to 10 years12.7311.8214.0412.6912.4413.1312.6011.5812.42
Females 10 to 15 years12.4311.1812.9612.1310.2912.6711.9711.4911.89
Females 15 to 20 years10.9810.0210.3811.328.2310.9410.5211.5610.68
Females 20 to 25 years10.069.669.699.8510.239.839.8611.4510.12
Females 25 to 30 years8.708.868.338.0012.187.928.749.078.80
Females 30 to 35 years7.
Females 35 to 40 years6.457.286.226.307.486.306.725.796.57
Females 40 to 45 years5.195.634.885.384.765.395.314.735.22
Females 45 to 50 years3.733.663.344.083.023.743.663.823.69
Females 50 to 55 years3.002.952.743.122.362.872.933.272.99
Females 55 to 60 years2.392.542.222.551.652.282.402.722.45
Females 60 to 65 years1.892.401.782.
Females 65 to 70 years1.432.321.081.710.801.601.701.641.69
Females 70 to 75 years0.801.400.621.280.391.101.030.881.00
Females 75 to 80 years0.440.710.310.710.180.620.540.460.53
Females 80 to 85 years0.240.340.150.390.070.360.280.230.28
Females 85 and over0.
Females Infants and children, 0 to 5 years.12.1910.9413.9211.1214.3712.2711.9711.5911.91
Girls, 5 to 15 years23.1623.0027.0024.8222.7325.8024.5723.0724.31
Maidens, 15 to 20 years10.9810.0210.3811.328.2310.9410.5211.5610.68
Young women, 20 to 30 years18.7618.5218.0217.8522.4117.7518.6020.5218.92
Middleaged, 30 to 50 years.22.6224.6521.7222.7025.5022.1623.2821.7823.04
Elderly, 50 to 65 years7.287.896.747.935.297.237.408.177.53
Aged, 65 and over3.014.982.224.261.473.853.663.313.61
[* Exclusive of both Half-Castes and Aborigines.] [† Including Aborigines, 2808.]


Of the total population, as ascertained at the last Census (172,475), particulars relating to the age and conjugal condition of 171,965 persons, or 99.70 per cent. of the whole, have been ascertained. The proportional analysis of these may, therefore, be safely taken as applying to the total population.

The following summary gives, under particular age-groups, a sufficiently comprehensive view of the number and percentage proportion living under the several conditions :—

Conjugal Condition in Tasmania, 1901., NUMERICAL.
Numbers specified.All ages specified.Under 15.15-20.20-45.45 & over.Males, 20 and over. Females, 15 and over.
Never married113,43864,02518,09628,3462,97140,045
Never married60,87232,5119,36817,1111,88218,993
Never married52,56631,5148,72811,2351,08921,052
Never married65.97100.0098.0844.8011.3340.65
Never married68.21100.0099.7851.2813.4440.10
Never married63.55100.0096.2937.558.9141.13
[* Including 57 persons (35 Males, 22 Females) returned as Divorced.]

From the foregoing analyses it is apparent that for every 100 persons of all ages there are—

Proportion in relation to all Persons.
Widowed and Divorced4.232.905.67
Never married65.9768.2163.55

If we restrict the relative proportions to all married and marriageable persons, however—say, males 20 years and upwards and females 15 years and upwards—we obtain the following proportions in relation to all married and marriageable persons ; thus :—

Percentage Proportion in relation to Married and Marriageable Persons.
Widowed and Divorced7.395.479.16
Never married40.6540.1041.13

Marriageable Men and Women.

To ascertain the full extent of marriageable persons it is necessary to add the widowed and divorced persons to bachelors and spinsters, as in the following abstract :—

Conjugal Condition.Marriageable Men (20 years and upwards.)Marriageable Women (15 years and upwards.)Women to every 100 Men.
Bachelors and spinsters, 190118,99321,052110.95
Widowers, widows, &c., 19012,5934,693181.09
All marriageable persons, 190121,58625,745119.29
All marriageable persons, 189118,58519,361104.18
All marriageable persons, 188111,88912,733107.10

Although there were, in 1901, 119.29 marriageable women to every 100 marriageable men, it appears there were only 110.95 spinsters to every 100 bachelors. In 1891 there was a less proportion of marriageable women in relation to marriageable men, being 104.18 in 1891 to 119.29 per cent. in 1901.

Distribution and Proportion of all Marriageable Women over 15 years of age to all Marriageable Men over 20 years of age.

As usual the larger number of marriageable women over 15 relative to marriageable men for all ages over 20 are found in the cities, and the smallest in country districts, especially so in the partially settled mining districts ; thus :—

Marriageable Persons.Marriageable Men.Marriageable Women.Women to every 100 Men.
City of Hobart2,8085,080180.08
City of Launceston1,7823,695207.40
Country Districts16,99616,97099.85
The State21,58625,745119.29

The smallest proportion of marriageable women to men was in the mining district of Lyell, viz., 25.45 per cent. ; and the largest in Queenborough, where it was as high as 247.30 per cent.

Proportion Married and Single Persons of all Ages at the last Eight Census Periods.

The proportion of married and single at various age-periods can only be ascertained for the three last Census periods. The proportion for all ages at the last eight Census periods are shown in the following abstract :—

Proportion per cent. Married and Single.
Census year.Married.Single.

Distribution and Proportion of Marriageable Women to Marriageable Men at the normal Marriageable Age.

The conclusions which may be drawn from the preceding analysis of the proportions of marriageable men and women ofall agesover the minimum prescribed for each sex require some further qualification before we can obtain a correct view of this important and interesting question.

To obtain a right conception of the proportions of the numbers of marriageable persons of both sexes attention should be restricted to thenormalmarriageable age-period. From the analysis of the marriage registers it has been ascertained that about 90 per cent. of all males who enter the marriage state marry between the ages of 20 and 40, while as much as 95 per cent. of females who enter the marriage state marry between the ages of 18 and 35 years. It has also to be borne in mind that all widowed and divorced persons are included in the preceding analysis of marriageable persons.

As most of the latter are well advanced in age, and few of which will again enter the marriage state, they ought to be eliminated from the comparison. It is further observed that these widowed and divorced persons of advanced age as a rule congregate in relatively greater proportions within the larger centres of population, as in Hobart and Launceston, and thus appear to swell unduly the proportions of the numbers of women to men at thenormaloreffectivemarriageable age.

To afford a more correct view of the proportions of available marriageable men and women within the limits of the effective or normal marriageable age, the following analysis has been prepared, based upon the condition of all males living between the ages of 20 and 40, and of all females living between the ages of 18 and 35 years, thus—

Synopsis of Proportions of Marriageable Men and Women in the chief divisions of the State living within the limits of the Effective or Normal Marriageable Age.
Division.Population.Marriageable Persons.
Normal Marriageable Age.
Men.Women.Women to 100 Men.
No.No.No.Per cent.
Other Country Districts98,9608,2527,01785.0
Hobart City24,6542,1912,535115.7
Launceston City18,0221,3092,018154.2

Thus it would appear that, while in the cities of Hobart and Launceston, at those ages at which men and women are most likely to marry, the number of marriageable women exceeds the marriageable men (the ratio in Launceston being about two men to every three women) ; the proportions of mining and country districts show that the numbers of marriageable men greatly exceed the numbers of marriageable women, and in the State, as a whole, it is shown that, at the ages at which men and women are most likely to marry, the proportion between the sexes equal about five men to every four women.


Of the total population at the last Census (172,475) particulars regarding the place of birth of 173,467 persons were ascertained. Of these 170,243, or 98.72 per cent., were born in British possessions, and 2224, or 1.28 per cent., in Foreign Countries. Those born in Australasia numbered 149,155, or 86.50 per cent. The details are as under :—

Born in Australasia.
Persons.Rate to Total Population.
Born in Commonwealth :—
New South Wales2,0751.20
South Australia8870.52
Western Australia960.06
Total Commonwealth147,92485.78
Born in New Zealand1,1930.70
Born in Fiji240.01
Born in Australasia (undefined)140.01
Total Australasia149,15586.50

As compared with the previous Census the number of persons born in Tasmania has increased by 28,728, or 26.62 per cent., while its percentage to the whole population has increased from 73.88 per cent. to 79.23 per cent. Similarly, the number of persons born in other parts of Australasia has increased by 5198, or 70.92 per cent., while their percentage to the total population has increased from 5.02 to 7.27 per cent.

The number of persons born in various parts of the United Kingdom are as under :—

Persons.Rate to Total Population.
United Kingdom :—
England and Wales12,9427.51
Total United Kingdom19,81511.48

It is of special importance to notice that the number of persons born in the United Kingdom at the last Census shows a marked decline, both numerically and centesimally during the last Census period. This arises in a large measure from arrest of immigration during the last forty years augmented by the larger proportion of deaths occurring among the earlier immigrants, who, within the last ten years, reached the final limits of ripe old age.

The decline, numerically and centesimally, of those born in the United Kingdom, whose descendants from the greater part of the existing population of Tasmania, is best appreciated by a glance at the following figures :—

Born in the United Kingdom.
Census Year.Persons.Per cent. to Total Population.

Born in other British Possessions.

There were only 1273 persons, or 0.74 per cent., of the total population, stated to have been born in other British Possessions—that is in British Possessions outside of Australasia and the United Kingdom. The details are as under :—

Birthplace.Persons No.
India (including Burmah)361
Straits Settlements14
Cape Colony21
Other South African Possessions18
St. Helena3
British Guiana3
Falkland Islands2
West Indies—
Other West Indian Possessions21
Other British Possessions, including B.S. born at sea, and (479) whose birthplaces are undefined663

Born in Foreign Countries, including their Dependencies.

The total number of persons enumerated at the last Census as having been born in foreign countries is stated to have been 2224, or only 1.28 per cent. of the total population. This shows a considerable decrease, both absolutely and relatively, as compared with the figures of the previous Census. The decrease, as compared with the Census of 1891, represents 715 persons, being a decrease of 24.33 per cent. This decrease of Foreign-born in our population is general, although by far the greatest decline is in the number of Chinese, thus :—

Born in.Decrease, Persons.Per cent.
Other Foreign Countries908.99

Further details as to the number of persons born in Foreign Countries and their dependencies are as follow :—

Birthplace.Persons No.
Sweden and Norway219
Other European Countries5
Other Asiatic Countries7
United States233
Other American Countries22
All other Foreign3
Total Foreign2,224


BIRTH-PLACES AT DIFFERENT CENSUS PERIODS., Showing the Numbers and Proportions of Persons born in different Countries, at the three last Censuses (1881, 1891, and 1901), also showing actual and relative Increase or Decrease during last decade.
Birth-place.Numerical.Centesimal.1901. Increase or Decrease last decade.
1881.1891.1901.1881.1891.1901.Actual.Per cent.
Total specified115,316146,043172,467100.00100.00100.0026,42418.09
British Empire—
United Kingdom28,24326,97519,81524.4918.4711.48-7,160-26.54
Other British Possessions8729001,2730.760.620.7437341.45
Total British Empire113,093143,104170,24398.0797.9998.7227,13918.96
Foreign Countries—2,2232,9392,2241.932.011.28-715-24.33
British Empire—
Australasia :
Other Australasian States3,9877,32812,5263.465.027.275,19870.92
United Kingdom :
England and Wales17,30717,44312,94215.6111.957.51-4,501-25.80
Scotland3,7443,8452,9863.242.631.74- 859-22.34
Other British Possessions8729001,2730.760.620.7337341.44
Foreign Countries—
Germany7829187730.680.630.44- 145-15.79
France577560.010.050.03- 21-27.27
China8449434840.500.640.28- 459-48.67
Other Foreign Countries5819658610.730.670.49-104-12.09


Of the 35,846 persons living in Tasmania at the last Census, particulars as to length of residence within the State have been ascertained in respect of 32,876, or 91.71 per cent. The number of years' residence arranged in quinquennial periods is as follows :—

Length of Residence., Persons—Numerical.
Years.Commonwealth.United Kingdom.Other Places.Total.
Under 5 years5,7172,0969088,721
80 and over1010
Total specified10,37718,5983,90132,876
Under 5 years55.1011.2723.2826.33
85 and over0.060.02
Number of Persons who have resided in Tasmania for a period of 25 years and over.
Per cental2.1928.503.04100.00
Total per cental, 25 and over.6.5084.489.02100.00

Although the number of persons living in Tasmania at the last Census (35,846) born elsewhere only represents about one-fifth of the total population, and although fully one-half of these are the survivals of persons born within the United Kingdom, the latter proportion does not adequately indicate the ancestry or origin of the existing population of Tasmania. The ancestry or origin of the present population is better indicated by the survivals of those born elsewhere than in Tasmania who have resided in the latter place for a period of 25 years and over.

The preceding analysis would seem to indicate, so far as racial origin is concerned, that fully 91 per cent. of the total population have been derived from British and Irish ancestry.

Tasmanians in each Australasian State or Colony.

At the last Census there were 30,535 Tasmanians living in the other six sister States or Colonies. These, with the 136,629 enumerated living in Tasmania, make a total of 167,164 persons of Tasmanian birth living in the seven Australasian Colonies.

The number of persons born in the six sister Colonies enumerated as living in Tasmania, was 12,488. This shows upon the whole that the sister Colonies have been the gainers by 18,047 persons in migratory exchange. During the last intercensal period, however, Tasmania has had the balance of inter-migration in its favour, as the balance against her was stated to be 19,418 persons ; that is, the migratory balance during the last decade was 1371 persons in favour of Tasmania, and against the six sister States.

The following abstract gives the details of the distribution of the 167,164 persons of Tasmanian birth living at the last Census in the seven Australasian Colonies, together with corresponding figures at the time of the previous Census :—

Tasmanian—born in each Australasian Colony.
Living in—Numerical. 1901.Persons. 1891.Per Cental.
New South Wales7,5775,8514.534.35
South Australia8177220.490.54
Western Australia1,7501081.050.08
New Zealand3,7202,6292.221.95
Total Tasmanian-born167,164134,613100.00100.00


In my report on the previous Census of Tasmania (1891) I stated that it is only in a very narrow and restricted sense that statistical information gained by the ordinary Census methods can be accepted as an index of the "Education of the People." At best it only attempts to gauge the proportion of those who have acquired the elementary power to receive or impart ideas to others by means of at least one known system of written or printed symbols. Of the extent, nature, or value of the ideas themselves, or of the power to receive or impart them in perfection, in one or more symbolic forms, as tested by the varied educational standards, the educational statistics of the ordinary Census tables afford only the very slightest clue.

Notwithstanding these objections, there is much to be gained by the knowledge obtained from the statistics which disclose the proportion of persons who can read and write at each age-period from 10 years and upwards ; and valuable information is also afforded in respect of the means provided, and the extent to which these are availed of at school-age in every part of the country. Thus, although, directly, the comparative power to read and write at each age and in each district conveys little information of the nature and extent of the education imparted, it is eloquent as an index in revealing comparatively how far the ordinary but invaluable culture of the Common School system extends or is lacking ; and also it affords a very safe measure of the success attained in other branches of education which are the usual concomitants of tuition in reading and writing in any tongue.

As the power to read and write therefore, is regarded mainly as evidence of the possession of a certain amount of intelligence obtained from the training in all other matters within the Common School curriculum, it has been deemed advisable to include all foreigners who can read and write under this category, irrespective of the tongue or symbol used, as there is no more justification, on educational grounds, for excluding Englishmen who can only so express themselves in their mother tongue. In the detail tables, however, the number of those who can only read, or read and write in a foreign tongue, are given separately, so that comparisons may be made with other places where a different method of classification obtains.

In making comparisons, it is obvious that all infants and children not yet arrived at the age for training in reading and writing should be excluded. Indeed it is the results of the training at the end of the normal tutelary stage which should be sought for in comparison with other periods or countries, rather than the misleading averages, which include not only the young under and during the age of the process of training, but also aged persons, whose averages tend to conceal the success or otherwise of the existing machinery provided for the education of the young of the community.

The classification adopted at the last Census, by the Statisticians of Australasia, for obvious reasons, excludes all ages under five years. In phrase "for all ages" where used hereafter in tables or otherwise, it must be understood that ages under five years are wholly excluded.

The following table shows the percentage proportions of all who could read and write, read only, and could not read, at the principal groups, as ascertained at the last Census in Tasmania :—

Percentage Proportion of all Specified Ages in Tasmania, 1901, who could Read and Write, Read only, and could not Read at the principal Ages, showing the proportions at each principal Age-Period.
Ages.Percentage Proportion.
Read & write.Read only.Cannot read.Read & write.Read only.Cannot read.Read & write.Read only.Cannot read.
All Ages and Education specified77.472.2620.0777.052.1820.7777.882.3419.78
5 years and over88.142.519.3587.532.4310.0488.812.618.58
7 years and over92.052.195.7691.292.106.6192.912.284.81
14 years and over93.021.835.1592.171.696.1493.941.984.08
15 years and over92.851.875.2892.041.716.2593.772.044.19
21 years and over91.902.165.9491.301.886.8292.602.474.93
5-7 years21.838.0270.1522.098.1069.8121.567.9470.50
7-14 years88.543.537.9387.923.698.3989.193.367.45
5-15 years76.264.1619.6475.674.3020.0376.773.9919.24
7-65 years92.901.895.2191.921.906.1893.971.884.15
Under 3 years0.000.00100.000.000.00100.000.000.00100.00
3-5 years0.001.0798.930.001.0099.000.001.1498.86
5-10 years56.747.0336.2356.377.1336.5057.126.9435.94
10-15 years96.131.212.6695.501.433.0796.790.982.23
15-20 years96.580.752.6795.161.063.7898.040.431.53
20-25 years96.740.532.7395.540.713.7597.990.351.66
25-30 years95.970.863.1794.551.034.4297.520.681.80
30-35 years95.180.983.8493.601.245.1697.000.682.32
35-40 years93.241.395.3791.741.106.8695.041.383.58
40-45 years91.171.996.8590.132.017.8692.391.975.64
45-50 years89.282.618.1188.242.079.6990.563.266.18
50-55 years90.033.216.7690.382.187.4489.624.415.97
55-60 years89.773.486.7590.642.307.0688.864.726.42
60-65 years87.204.668.1489.193.187.6385.226.158.63
65-70 years81.167.2411.6087.133.958.9275.3310.4414.23
70-75 years76.707.6315.6781.465.792.7570.849.9019.26
75-80 years72.148.4419.4274.537.0318.4468.6210.5220.86
80-85 years65.3110.5124.1865.589.3725.0564.9012.2522.85
85 and over65.709.3025.0070.067.6122.3359.8711.5628.57
Unspecified as regards Ages82.444.0513.5187.935.186.8962.506.0037.50

In the above very full analysis is shown the percentage proportions of all over the School-age—14 years and over—under various categories. To measure the progress of education comparisons with the results of the previous Census of 1891 are given as follows :—

1901. Per cent.1891. Per cent.
Read and Write, 14 years and over—
Read only, 14 years and over—
Could not Read, 14 years and over—

The proportions at the higher stage—read and write—at each quinquennial period is as usual highest at age-period 15-20, among which females (98.04 per cent.) show the best results, thus :—

Females98.04 per cent.
Males95.26 per cent.
Persons96.58 per cent.

As the percentages of those who can read and write at successive quinquennial periods gradually diminish—being as low as 59.87 per cent., in the oldest (Females, 85 and over)—they afford the best indication that can be given of the decided but gradual improvement in the means of education that has taken place at each quinquennial since the beginning of the last century. That even the present means of education is capable of producing still higher results, as years eliminate the poorer results and reduce the proportions of past efforts, is shown by the figures which record more perfectly the results of the educational system now in operation—that is, at the age-period 15-20 years—among which those who cannot read and write do not now exceed 3½ per cent. of those living at that age.

Improvement in Education since 1891.

The tendency towards improvement is also clearly manifested in comparisons at different age-periods, as shown by the Census returns of 1881, 1891 and 1901 ; thus :—

Percentage Proportions, 1881, 1891, 1901.
Read and Write—Persons.1881.1891.1901.
Ages 5-1561.6167.0476.20
5 and over75.2383.2788.14
15 and over80.5888.5792.85
20 and over78.9987.3692.09

Education of Children.

The education of children between 5 and 15 years of age upon the whole shows considerable improvement, as compared with the two previous Censuses ; thus :—

Proportion per 100 Living, Ages 5-15.
Urban Districts—
Read and write72.3073.7481.27
Read only12.358.273.90
Cannot read15.3517.9914.83
Rural Districts—
Read and write57.4464.5874.71
Read only15.658.324.23
Cannot read26.9127.1021.06
The State—
Read and write61.6167.0476.20
Read only14.728.304.16
Cannot read23.6724.6619.64

The variation of the results is considerable accordingly as the group approaches the termination of the School Period, those at the later stage showing, of course, much higher results. This is best

illustrated by selecting six typical groups—3-15, 5-14, 5-15, 6-15, local school age, 7-14, and group 10-15, as revealed by the last Census Returns, 1901 ; thus :—

Proportion per 100 living at each Age Period.
Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.
3-15 years—
5-14 years—
5-15 years—
6-15 years—
7-14 years, School Age—
10-15 years—


The best index of the striking progress made by the Australasian States in regard to Education is obtained by comparing the results of the Three Censuses—1881, 1891, and 1901—in respect of all ages of Five years and over, as in the following table :—

Proportion of Persons per 10,000 of the Population 5 Years of Age and over who could Read and Write, Read only, and who could not Read in the seven Australasian States in the Census years 1881, 1891, and 1901.
Degree of Education.Per 10,000 Persons.
Seven States of Australasia—
Read and write8,2708,8048,710
Read only689393225
Cannot read1,0418031,065
Tasmania compared—
Read and write7,5238,2378,814
Read only946492251
Cannot read1,5311,271935

It will be seen from these results that while in the earlier years—1881, 1891—Tasmania was considerably behind the average of the seven Australasian States in the proportion of those who could read and write, yet in the later year—1901—the rapid progress made has placed her slightly ahead of the average of the Seven States in respect of this higher category. Thus while in 1881 there were only 7523 persons in Tasmania who could read and write out of every 10,000 people 5 years of age and over, the number in 1901 had increased to 8814 ; while those who could not read had, in the same period, decreased from 1531 to 935. Such marked progress during the last 20 years reflects great credit upon the existing Common School system of education in Tasmania.

Schools and School Attendance.

As in the former Census, the figures relating to children receiving instruction at the various schools or at home are not quite so satisfactory, and the same remarks apply to information relating to the number of schools and teachers. If we supplement the information so obtained by official returns relating to schools in the General Statistics of the State we obtain the following approximations :—

Schools, Teachers, and Scholars, 1901.
Teachers (State and Private)1,363
Children living 3-15 age51,561
Children (School age) 7-14 age30,294
Receiving Instruction—
All ages34,529
3-15 years32,881
School age (7-14)26,580
In Common Schools31,545

From these figures we gather that throughout the 26,215 square miles of Tasmania there were established 553 Common Schools, having 31,545 scholars receiving instruction at the time of the Census—i.e. an average of 57 scholars to each school. The number of persons receiving instruction, whether at school or at home, is stated to be 34,529, and the number of instructors of all kinds are stated to be 1363. This provides one instructor to every 26 scholars. At the Census of 1891 we find there were 71 scholars to each school, and one instructor to every 31 pupils.

The following table gives fuller information regarding the numbers and proportions of children receiving instruction at school and at home at various age-periods between 3 and 15 years of age at the last Census, together with corresponding proportions for the previous Censuses, 1881 and 1891 :—

Children between 3 and 15 Years of Age receiving Instruction, 1901.
Total Children living.Receiving Instruction atResidue.
State Schools.Private Schools.Denominational Schools.College, Grammar, or High School.Student at University.All Schools.At Home.
Ages 3-15 years—
Age 3-7 years—
Age 7-14 years (school age)—
Age 14-15 years—
Ages 3-15 years100.0039.1412.083.941.320.0056.487.2736.25
3-7 years100.0011.365.191.650.140.0018.348.0973.57
7-14 years (school age)100.0056.9516.395.441.730.0080.517.2312.26
14-15 years100.0024.039.052.483.180.0238.764.1357.11
Census 1901—
7-14 years100.0056.9516.395.441.730.0080.517.2312.26
Census 1891—
7-14 years100.0049.3621.8971.259.0819.67
Census 1881—
7-14 years100.0039.0523.4062.4515.9121.64

If we examine more particularly the School-age group (7-14 years) we find that there has been a gradual improvement in the numbers actually receiving instruction as compared with the results of the two previous Censuses, all taken at a given point of time. Thus in 1881 there were as much as 21.64 per cent. of children not in actual attendance. In 1891 the actual non-attendance fell to 19.67 per cent., while at the last Census the percentage of non-attendance decreased still further to 12.26 per cent.

At first sight it might be supposed that the whole of the non-attendant residue (12.67 per cent.) had never been provided with the ordinary advantages of the common school instruction ; but, as formerly pointed out by me, this supposition is altogether erroneous. It simply means that about 12.67 per cent. of all children living within the limits of the school-age were not in actual attendance at school at that particular moment of time. Directly it affords no evidence whatever of the number of children who may have attained the age of 14 years who never received an elementary school education.

The only method for ascertaining approximately the numbers who failed to receive instruction at some period within the school-age is to analyse the standard of education of those who have just completed the age terminating the school period. Thus, if we take all those who had attained their fifteenth year of age, we obtain from their standard a fair estimate of what the previous opportunities for instruction must have been. Accordingly we find that although there were only 87.74 per cent., at school-age attending upon instruction at the time of the Census the percentage of those who had completed their fifteenth year of age, who could both read and write, was as high as 96.58 per cent., and those who could read 97.33 per cent. It follows that the number of children at the close of the school period who had failed to receive any instruction within the compulsory period could not have exceeded 2.67 per cent. of the whole group. This is a fairly satisfactory result when we consider the distance which children have to travel to the nearest school in the thinly populated country districts of the State.

The following table shows more fully the proportions at the age of 15 who could read and write, contrasted with the proportional attendance at school-age, at the time of the Census, in the various electoral districts of the State. The small, densely populated centres of Cressy, Franklin, and Oatlands take up the first position, each having 100 per cent. at the age who could read and write ; while the very large, thinly populated district of Cumberland, as in the former Census, takes up the lowest position with only 88.37 per cent. who could read and write.

Proportion of Children at the Age of 15 who could Read and Write, as contrasted with proportion of Children at School Age (7-14) actually receiving instruction in the Census year.
Proportion per 100 living under Age Period.
15 and under 16 years age, Read and Write.School Age, 7-14 years, receiving instruction.
Urban Districts98.6489.42
Rural Districts96.1887.23
The whole State96.7987.74
George Town98.3290.10
C&bell Town96.0886.88
Devon, West94.1287.42
New Norfolk93.3471.24


Religion—only indicating the denomination or class to which the individual professes to be related—was again included as a subject of enquiry in the Schedule for the Census of 1901.

At the previous Census, owing to some misapprehension, there were signs of objection on the part of a few, mainly belonging to the minor denominational bodies. The provision, however, to allow anyone to "object," introduced in the Census Acts of 1901, in Tasmania and the six sister States of Australasia, as in former Australasian Censuses, has had the effect of gradually reducing the still lingering fragment of objectors to this most useful and interesting statistics.

The following references tend to show that any serious objection to state the religious denomination to which each person belongs (if any) is almost as extinct as the older superstitious opposition to taking a "census" of any kind :—

Proportion of Persons who "Object" to state the Religious Denomination to which they belong in Different Countries and at Different Times, where the Optional Clause has been introduced., Percentage of Those who Object.
Country.Census Year.Percentage Objectors.
New South Wales1,8911.00
New South Wales1,9010.96
New Zealand1,8812.85
New Zealand1,8912.45
New Zealand1,8962.27
New Zealand1,9012.37
South Australia1,9012.07
Western Australia1,9011.66

These figures show, where the optional clause to write "Object" is introduced in the answers to Census queries, that even the numbers who avail themselves of it are now very few indeed. The following observations of the eminent statistician, Dr. Longstaff (Studies in Statistics, pp. 211-12), indicate the modern tendencies of thought upon this important matter :—

"A religious census is taken in most foreign countries : it is taken in Ireland, and in most of our colonies and possessions. The principal exceptions are Great Britain, France, and Italy, and the United States. Before the unification of Italy a religious census was taken in Sardinia. The proposal to ask people in England their religious profession, a proposal that has been recommended by this Society (Royal Statistical Society) in 1840, 1860, 1870, and 1880, has always excited an amount of feeling which I confess I find it difficult to understand. . . . Many persons of all sorts of opinions say that a man's religious opinions are his own affair, and that no one has a right to inquire into them. This last objection is, I think, largely founded on the misconception that the object of the census is inquiry into individuals, whereas inquiry is made of individuals solely with a view to obtain results as to aggregates. . . . I fully admit that the returns obtained would not be absolutely correct ; nevertheless, I cannot but think that the results of successive censuses would be most valuable for comparisons, and that most interesting tendencies to increase or decrease in one direction or another would be brought to light."

In the following table a detailed account is given showing that out of a total population of 172,475 persons particulars as to the religious denomination were ascertained in respect of 169,095

persons, or 98 per cent. The unspecified numbered 3380 persons, or only 2 per cent. of the whole population. Of the latter there were 2900, or 1.72 per cent., who objected to disclose the name, if any, of the denomination to which they belonged, and there were 480, or 0.28 per cent., who failed to give any particulars. The main feature of this table may be conveniently summarised in the following way :—

Approximate Proportions Relative to the Whole Population.
Church of England1 to every 2 persons, or 49.58 per cent.
Church of Rome1 to every 5 persons, or 17.93 per cent.
Methodists1 to every 7 persons, or 14.76 per cent.
Presbyterians1 to every 15 persons, or 6.82 per cent.
Independents1 to every 30 persons, or 3.28 per cent.
Baptists1 to every 36 persons, or 2.79 per cent.
Salvation Army1 to every 116 persons, or 0.86 per cent.
Society of Friends1 to every 909 persons, or 0.11 per cent.
Other Christian Sects1 to every 33 persons, or 3.02 per cent.
Jews1 to every 1667 persons, or 0.06 per cent.
Mahommedans, &c.1 to every 385 persons, or 0.26 per cent.
Agnostics, Deists, Infidels, &c.1 to every 455 persons, or 0.24 per cent.
Others unspecified1 to every 345 persons, or 0.29 per cent.
Table showing the Numbers and Proportion per cent. of Persons belonging to the principal Groups, and to each Religious Denomination in the State, according to the return of the Census taken on 31st March, 1901.
Denomination.Numbers.Per Cent. to Totals specified.
Total specified169,095100.00
Christian Brethren, &c.1,7291.02
Church of England83,81249.58
Church of Rome30,31417.93
Salvation Army1,4540.86
Other Christian Denominations3,1701.86
Total Christian Denominations167,61099.13
Non-Christian Religions5590.33
Residue of Population9260.54
General Baptist, Baptist Union of Tasmania4,3252.56
Particular Baptist5
Seventh Day Baptist, Adventist3860.23
Christian Brethren, &c.—
Christian Disciple of Christ, Church of Christ1,0700.64
Christian Brethren, Plymouth Brethren
Exclusive Brethren, Open Brethren
Gospel Brethren6450.38
Christian Israelites, First Day Christians14
Church of England83,81249.58
Church of Rome30,31417.93
Independents, Congregationalists5,5443.28
Lutherans, German Evangelical2400.14
Lutheran (not otherwise defined)1470.09
Wesleyan, Wesleyan Methodists20,47012.12
Primitive Methodist3,2131.90
United Methodist Free Church2820.16
Free Methodist9
Methodists (not otherwise defined)9870.58
Presbyterian Church of Tasmania4,2292.51
Presbyterian Church of Australia13
Presbyterian Church of Scotland980.06
Free Presbyterian Church7
Free Church of Scotland8550.51
Presbyterian (not otherwise defined)6,321
Other Christian Denominations—
Bible Christians380.01
Catholic Apostolic Church, Irvingites380.01
Free Church of England3
Greek Church, Russian Church10
New Jerusalem1
Protestant (not otherwise defined)2,6211.55
Salvation Army1,4540.86
Society of Friends, Quaker1790.11
Swiss Reformed Church1
Welsh Church2
Other unclassified Christian Sects1890.13
Non-Christian Religions—
Jews, Hebrews1070.06
Buddhists, Confucians, and other Chinese Sects3530.25
Other unclassified Non-Christian Sects720.01
Residue of Population—
No Denomination (stated as such)5150.30
No Religion (Agnostics, Deists, Infidels, &c.)4111.24
Object to State Religion2,9001.72
Proportion Per Cent. of Persons of principal Religious Denominations in 1891 and 1901.
Denomination.1891.1901.Increase or Decrease since 1891.
No.Per cent.No.Per cent.No.Per cent.
Church of England73,16951.7183,81249.5810,64314.55
Church of Rome25,80018.2430,31417.934,51417.50
Salvation Army1,2160.861,4540.8623819.57
Society of Friends1760.121790.1131.70
Other Christian Sects4,6943.335,1073.024138.79
Mahomedans, Buddhists, and other Non-Christian Sects1,0010.714520.26- 549- 54.84
Total specified141,493100.00169,095100.0027,60219.51

The above table shows that the proportion and relative importance of the different denominations have not materially altered from the position taken up by the same bodies in the previous Census. Among the Christian denominations the largest relative increase since 1891 have been in the following order :—

1. Methodists1.45 fold.
2. Independents1.23 fold.
3. Salvation Army1.19 fold.
4. Presbyterians1.18 fold.
5. Church of Rome1.17 fold.
6. Church of England1.14 fold.
7. General increase all bodies1.19 fold.

The only denominations showing a positive decrease are the Non-Christian Sects and Mahomedans, which have diminished by 549, or 54.84 per cent.

Religion and Education.

The following table shows the degree of education possessed by the principal religious groups or denominations, in the order of the lower percentage, as regards the proportion at and above 15 years of age who were "unable to read" :—

Per 100 living.
Read and Write.Read only.Cannot Read.
Christian Denominations.
1. Christian Brethren96.811.691.50
2. Presbyterians97.021.191.79
3. Lutherans94.723.331.95
4. Independents96.611.132.26
5. Methodists95.771.502.73
6. Baptists95.801.372.83
7. Other Christian Denominations94.662.492.85
8. Church of England92.491.835.68
9. Church of Rome88.272.808.93
All Christian Denominations92.861.885.26
Non-Christian Denominations.
1. Mahomedans and other Non-Christian Sects93.810.685.51
2. Buddhists and Confucians87.041.2311.73
Residue undefined91.761.336.91


At the Conference of Statisticians, held in Sydney, it was considered desirable to confine inquiries as to Sickness and Infirmity to four distinct categories, viz. :—

  1. Persons unable at the time to follow usual occupation by reason of Sickness.

  2. Persons unable at the time to follow usual occupation by reason of Accident.

  3. Deaf and Dumb.

  4. Blind.

The reason for this restriction of the number of specific inquiries made in previous Censuses is, that by extending the inquiry into such infirmities as idiotcy, epilepsy, insanity, loss of a limb, etc, there are a large number of persons who, from wounded sensibilities, would either refuse or refrain from answering them, and in consequence would be too imperfect in these respects to be of any statistical value. Notwithstanding this restriction to the inquiries made, a large number of heads of families or establishments furnished particulars of other classes of infirmities ; but, though the more important of these are tabulated in the more extended tables, they are not deemed to be of sufficient value to introduce for the purposes of comparison in this report.

At the last Census (1901) the number of persons stated to be sick, suffering from accident, deaf and dumb, and blind was 1652, which scarcely represents 1 per cent. of the total population, viz., 0.96 per cent. Of the 1127 sick persons there were 618 males and 509 females.

In the following summary the results of the Censuses of the years 1891 and 1901 are contrasted :—

Sickness and Infirmity.1901.1891.
Persons. No.Per cent. to Total Population.Persons. No.Per cent. to Total Population.
Deaf and Dumb750.04540.04

Upon the whole the proportion of sickness and infirmity at the time of the last Census is shown to be 0.10 per cent. less than at the time of the Census of 1891.

The male bread-winners being more exposed to risk of accident, from the nature of their occupations, invariably represent a larger relative proportion suffering from sickness and infirmity than females. In 1901 the number of cases among males was 924, or 1.11 per cent. ; among females the number of cases was 658, or only 0.79 per cent. of the total female population.

The four classes of infirmities for which particulars were sought, fall, naturally, into two very distinct divisions—(1) those causing disablement to follow usual occupation by reason of sickness or accident. The greater number of persons so disabled, however, are expected to recover sooner or later, and the group is thus distinguished from : (2) that group of infirmities—deaf and dumb and blind—embracing those of a more or less permanent character.

Proportion of Persons Disabled from Sickness at each Age-Period.

The proportion of persons disabled from sickness and accident increases with age in a degree almost approaching to geometrical progression. Thus the proportion of males and females, per 10,000 living, disabled from both causes, at the last Census, increased at each successive age-period in the following ratio :—

Age Period.Per 10,000 Living.
Under 20 years21.2517.01
20 to 40 years79.7351.40
40 to 55 years115.8080.49
55 to 70 years293.02200.73
70 and over1015.98849.04

The variability in the proportions of males and females disabled from sickness and accident at each age-period is more fully disclosed in the following table :—

Sickness and Accident at each Age.—(Census 1901.)
Ages.Number per 10,000 Living at each Age-Group, Disabled from :—
All Ages68.9761.4426.564.7195.5366.15
Under 20 years11.7015.539.551.4821.2517.01
20 to 40 years45.3647.0534.374.3579.7351.40
40 to 55 years76.0669.4239.7211.07115.8080.49
55 to 70 years227.24190.6265.7810.11293.02200.73
70 years and over933.20817.0082.7832.041015.98849.04
20 years and over119.60103.2041.597.81161.19111.01
Under 5 years8.4112.800.939.3412.80
5 to 10 years5.3710.124.481.849.8511.96
10 to 15 years15.9620.9913.160.9529.1221.94
15 to 20 years18.1229.8121.323.3139.4433.12
20 to 25 years42.3747.9130.273.6872.6451.59
25 to 30 years43.9836.5635.744.5779.7241.13
30 to 35 years49.8450.2138.951.7988.7952.00
35 to 40 years46.3255.6033.537.6779.8563.27
40 to 45 years51.2358.2237.948.9689.1767.18
45 to 50 years95.7480.8039.899.69135.6390.49
50 to 55 years96.5375.6642.9016.82139.4392.48
55 to 60 years175.35116.7165.1310.60240.48127.31
60 to 65 years225.51191.3063.615.78289.02197.08
65 to 70 years309.60295.3669.6615.14379.26310.50
70 to 75 years694.50453.6189.0443.97793.54527.58
75 to 80 years965.85992.4366.1619.431032.011011.86
80 to 85 years1198.34960.0065.381263.72960.00
85 and over1557.761972.50150.7568.151708.512040.65

From the preceding table it would appear that up to the age of 45 the proportion of those disabled from sickness was greater among females than males ; the reverse being the case for nearly all the quinquennial age-periods (exception, 75 to 80 years) from 45-50. As might be expected the liability to disablement from accidental injury is much greater for males than females, the proportion for all ages being 26.56 per 10,000 living for males, and only 4.71 per 10,000 living for females. Although the proportion of persons so disabled increases with age, the ratio is much smaller for accidental injury than for sickness. It is probable also that in the older age-groups those stated as disabled from accident may have their proportions greatly augmented from causes occurring at the earlier ages, especially as regards males, who are more exposed to injury from accident in the earlier years from the nature of their sports and occupations.

Number of Days of Sickness and Accident Disablement for Men Yearly.

To Friendly Societies and their individual members it is of the greatest importance to obtain accurate information as to the probable number of days in each year in which men are disabled from following their usual occupations, and how far are their Sick Funds affected by the heavier demands made upon them as we proceed from the younger to the older lives. The experience of our Friendly Societies in Tasmania for the years 1891 and 1901 respectively was as follows :—

Sick Pay.—Average number of days Disabled in each year in respect of which each member received Sick Pay.

1,8916.89 days per memeber per year.
1,9017.48 days per member per year.

If we assume that the number of men disabled from work by reason of sickness and accident on Census day was a fair index of the proportions similarly disabled throughout the year, the following figures, for men at all ages 20 and over, would show the aggregate number of days' disablement per man per year :—

1,8915.58 days disabled per man per year.
1,9015.88 days disabled per man per year.

These results, however, are considerably lower than the actual experience of our local Friendly Societies. It is possible that the great difference between the Census results and the experience of Friendly Societies may be accounted for in part by one or all of the following considerations :—


That at the time of the year in which the Census was taken there was a greater average freedom from sickness than the average of the whole year.


That, in cases of the less serious forms of sickness, there is reason to expect that there would be a greater tendency on the part of members of Friendly Societies to place themselves upon the sick list than it would be on the part of the great body of breadwinners who were not so fortunately provided for in cases of temporary disablement.


That the information relating to disablement from sickness or accident may possibly be less complete than in the returns furnished in respect of members of Friendly Societies, as failure to give complete information on the part of the person filling up the Census schedule is not attended with the personal disadvantages as would occur to a disabled member of a friendly society who failed to report his case in the proper quarter.

This is the general experience at other times and in other countries as regards the information relating to disablement from sickness and accident obtained by the Census collector, and, therefore, so far as the Actuary of Friendly Societies is concerned, the Census results would not of themselves be a safe guide to him in framing his provisions for meeting the demands for sick pay for the various age-groups of the normal form of friendly society.

Notwithstanding this the information obtained by way of Census may fairly be relied upon as being relatively true as compared with information similarily obtained at other times and in other countries.

The following table shows for the Census years 1891 and 1901 the estimated number of days lost by men during the year according to age :—


SICKNESS AND ACCIDENT—MALES, YEARS 1891-1901., Table showing for the Census years 1891-1901 the estimated number of Working Days lost by Males owing to Sickness and Accident—per head, per yearmdsh;at each Age—Group—*
Age.Estimated number of Working Days lost per head per year.*
1891.1901.Mean of Two Census Years.
All ages3.723.493.60
0 - 5 years0.710.340.53
5 - 65 years3.352.622.99
65 and over17.2429.2723.25
20 and over5.585.885.78†
0 - 5 years0.710.340.52
5 - 10 years1.370.360.87
10 - 15 years1.851.061.45
15 - 20 years3.351.442.40
20 - 25 years3.422.653.33
25 - 30 years3.172.913.04
30 - 35 years3.153.243.20
35 - 40 years3.522.914.22
40 - 45 years4.293.253.77
45 - 50 years5.254.955.10
50 - 55 years6.525.095.80
55 - 60 years6.238.787.50
60 - 65 years9.7910.5610.17
65 - 70 years9.5313.8411.68
70 - 75 years19.2228.6023.91
75 - 80 years20.3337.6629.00
80 - 85 years27.8146.1236.96
85 and over26.9062.3744.63
0 - 20 years1.670.771.22
20 - 40 years3.302.913.10
40 - 55 years5.234.234.73
55 - 70 years8.4210.709.56
70 and over21.3437.1229.23
[* Based upon the assumption that the same proportion as on Census day characterised all other days throughout the year.] [† This average closely corresponds with the average number of days' sickness for which Sick Pay is provided by the various Friendly Societies in Tasmania.]

It will be observed that the results of the two Census years differ considerably in the details of ages. Up to the age of 40 the year 1901 contrasts favourably with 1891 ; the reverse being the case for the most part for ages over 40. Upon the whole, however, the mean loss of days per man per year for men at ages 20 and over does not present any material difference. The mean of both years show a smaller loss per man than the average loss experienced by local Friendly Societies for the same years by as much as 20 per cent.

Comparative yearly disablement from Sickness for Men in different countries.

The average number of days' sickness for men in different countries, as ascertained by the labours of eminent actuaries, is also of the greatest interest, as throwing light upon all matters affecting the general health of the people.

It is reasonable to expect that there should be wide differences in the experience of different countries in respect of the disablement, yearly, of men from sickness arising from the great difference of the conditions of local environment, among which the following are the most important factors :—

Differences as regards—

  1. Climate.

  2. Comparative density of population.

  3. Stage of development—(a) pastoral stage ; (b) agricultural stage ; (c) manufacturing stage.

  4. The more or less effective administration of the law relating to factories, and in respect of all sanitary matters.

  5. The comparative healthiness of the prevailing occupations of the people.

These important considerations should be borne in mind when comparing the wide differences in the sickness experience for the different countries as contrasted in the following table :—

Average number of Days of Sickness yearly for Men in different Countries.
Ages.General Population.*Friendly or Mutual Aid Societies.†
Tasmania. (a)Victoria. (b)Victoria. (1)England. (2)Scotland. (2)France. (2)Germany. (2)Italy. (2)Average.
20 to 25 years3.
25 to 30 years3.
30 to 35 years3.
35 to 40 years3.
40 to 45 years4.
45 to 50 years5.
50 to 55 years6.
55 to 60 years6.28.818.515.026.622.514.98.416.39.216.3
60 to 65 years9.810.625.019.340.432.
65 to 70 years9.513.837.527.678.155.855.616.718.913.439.7
All Ages General Population5.
Friendly Societies6.97.510.
[* Based upon results of Census ;computaions as regards the General Population—(a) R.M. Johnston, (b) H.H. Hayter.] [† (1) Based upon the experience of various Friendly Societies, as ascertained by the labourers of Bertillon, Bodio, Husbbard, Neison, Ratcliffee, Finlayson, Ansell, Oliphant, Behm, &c. (Mulhall).] [(2) Based upon the eperiecce of the Manchester Unity I.O.O.F. in Victorir (1881-90), as determined by the labours of E.F. Owen, A.I.A., Actuary for Friendly Societies, Victoria.]


The number of persons disabled from sickness and accident belonging to each class of breadwinners and to each division of dependants is shown in the following table :—

Table showing the number of cases of Sickness and Accident at the time of the Census (1901) in relation to the principal classes of Occupation.
Occupations.Cases of Sickness and Accident (All Ages).
Class.Persons.No.Equivalent Number of Days Sickness and Suffering from Accident pre head per year for each Class.*
All Classes172,4751,4043.49
Agricultural, Pastoral, and other Primary Producers27,8993474.54
Wives and Daughters engaged in Domestic Duties33,5412002.18
Children and Relatives63,8638251.86
Inmates of Public Institutions1,577439.95†
TOTAL DEPENDANTS98,9815682.09‡
[* Based upon the assumption that the proportions on Census day characterise all other days throughout the year.] [† The higher rate is mainly due to the larger proportion of elderly persons in this group.] [‡ The lower rate in this class is mainly due to the large proportion of youthful persons contained therein.]

From the preceding table it is observed that out of the 1404 persons disabled from sickness and accident 836, or 59.54 per cent., were bread-winners, and 568, or 40.46 per cent., were dependants. Relative to the numbers in each class and division, the number of lost days per year is estimated to be 4.15 days per bread-winner and 2.09 days per dependant ; that is, the disablement for bread-winners on the average is double that of dependant wives, children, and others. The highest rate—14.22 days—however, occurs in the class "Indefinite" ; but this arises from the greater average age of the retired persons of independent means who form the larger number of this particular group. The increase of sickness with age also explains the higher rate among inmates of public institutions, where persons of extreme old age predominate.


The number of persons returned as deaf and dumb at the last Census is stated to be 7b, or 4.35 for every 10,000 of the total population. Of these, 41 were males and 34 females. Although the proportion of persons returned as deaf and dumb is slightly greater than at the time of the previous Census, it compares favourably with other countries, as shown in the following table :—

Deaf Mutes in various Countries per 100000 Persons.
Tasmania, 190143
Tasmania, 189137
South Australia97
New Zealand24
Mean of principal European Countries (Mulhall)85


The number of person recorded as blind at the last Census is 173, of whom there were 97 males and 76 females. The rate of 10.03 per 10,000 persons is above the average of the United Kingdom and Australasia, although, according to Mulhall, it is below the average of the principal European countries.

Blindness, for the most part, however, is rather a condition of age ; and unless allowance be made for the great differences in the proportions of persons living at the principal age-groups in different countries, and especially for ages 65 and over, comparisons would be altogether misleading. This remarkable increase of blindness with increase of age is well illustrated in the following comparative table :—

Proportion of Blind Persons at Three important Age-Groups, and for all Ages in different Countries. (Per Million Persons).
All ages.Age-Groups.
Under 65 years.*Under 5 years.5-65.65 & over.All Ages.
New Zealand352354055,896586
South Australia499755699,172869
[* Corrected for differences in the proportions of persons living at different age-groups.]

The principal reason why Tasmania compares so unfavourably with other countries as regards the proportion of blind persons in relation to the total population, is due to the fact that she has an abnormally large proportion of persons living at an extreme old age. The influence of extreme old age as affecting the proportion of persons returned as blind is very strikingly illustrated in the preceding table : Tasmania taking up the 3rd position for all ages under 65, while for all ages she takes up the last, or 6th.


In my report of the Census of 1891 I have stated that perhaps there is no subject of such vital importance at the present day as that which concerns itself with the organisation of Industry, as revealed by the figures relating to the Occupations of the People : few take into consideration that there are natural laws in operation which as surely determine the numbers required in any country for particular kinds of employment as do the laws which locally determine the periods and relative heights of the diurnal tides, kinds of service or occupations, and the numbers of hands therein within a complete circle of interchange, and which are strictly determined by the average common wants. The wants which demand the greater expenditure of human energy must absorb the greater proportion of persons requiring employment, without regard to capacities, attainments, or personal desires ; and so far as the mass of human beings are concerned there is, broadly speaking, no choice.

The great wants—food, clothing, and shelter—are by far the greater factors in the determination of the aggregate numbers that must be employed in particular classes of occupations if the wants are to be reasonably satisfied ; the same three great wants also determine the necessary amount and proportions of capital, machinery, and land, together with the numbers and proportions of labourers for each kind of occupation, which, directly or indirectly, is utilized in the satisfaction of the said three great wants.

The numbers at present absorbed in creating luxurious satisfactions, although important numerically, are insignificant in comparison with the numbers absolutely required to supply the minimum of the great wants—food, clothing, and shelter ; and hence it follows that no social advancement by means of the higher education of the people can do more than ameliorate existing conditions. It cannot alter the relative numbers engaged in the various branches, excepting those cases where improved producing agencies, such as steam, electricity, and other mechanical aids, are substituted for manual labour in the more toilsome occupations, thus liberating or rendering available a larger proportion of human labour for increasing the general supply of the more luxurious satisfactions now confined to the few, or for curtailing the long hours of toilsome labour at present necessary to produce in sufficiency the common necessaries of life. It is not absolutely necessary, however, that the great classes of occupations of any one place or country, say agricultural and industrial occupations, should preserve the world's strict average proportions to each other, so far as the particular place or country is concerned, so long as they are free to make necessary exchanges with other places or countries which supply the complement of the full circle of necessary wants, or for disposing or making good local surpluses and deficiencies. Nevertheless, a country confined to the production of its own satisfaction, or what is the same, the world as a whole, must preserve the strict average proportion and quantity of labour and auxiliary aids in the production of satisfactions for the three great wants—food, clothing, and shelter—which are the mainsprings of all human activities.

The local conditions of the particular place, however, determine to a great extent the proportions of the several classes of industry. Manufactures, not so much affected by limit of space, are most economically produced within a small area, as in towns and populous centres, where the transfer of partly completed products and of labour from one branch to another can be effected with the least expenditure of time and labour, thus lessening the disadvantageous effects of distance between the producer and consumer. It is clear, therefore, that within each great circle of exchange the conditions of the locality, such as climate, soil, minerals, area of land more or less, suitable for different forms of industry, determine for each place the proportions of persons that may be locally employed in different classes of occupation ; and these proportions in any one place are sufficiently steady to enable us to gauge to what extent particular industries may be increased without producing that state of congestion of the particular field of labour, which, from such considerations, may as readily be induced in a thinly populated colony as in a crowded centre of population. It is clear, therefore, if the occupations of large bodies of immigrants into a colony do not correspond to the standard of the local proportion of the division of labour, difficulties are sure to arise in the local labour market, not because in such thinly populated lands there is no room for more hands, but because thedirectionin which the applicants have been trained, or in which they desire to be employed, is out of harmony with the natural or local proportions of those branches of industry which experience has shown can alone be carried on with success. These observations equally apply to the training of the young within the State in harmony with the direction and proportion in which their services in the future can be utilized. The different proportions of the various divisions of labour which different places or countries can maintain, is sufficiently indicated by showing what are the average differences in the composition of the bread-winners of a community accordingly as we take an Urban or Rural District of a State like Tasmania, or an average of a

populous manufacturing country like the United Kingdom. Thus, among 100 Bread-winners, the following shows the average proportion of the great divisions of labour in England, New Zealand, and Tasmania, and also the average composition of a typical Rural and Urban District in the latter State. The world's average, embracing a complete circle of exchange, is placed alongside for comparison.

Average percentage Proportion of different Classes of Bread-winners.
Class.Tasmania, 1901.The State.New Zealand, 1901.Approximate.Approximate mean of Europe, India, and America— Total.
Urban District.Rural District.Approximate. England.
1. Primary Producers—
Agricultural Pastoral2.2438.0428.98
Other Primary Producers..451.941.53
Total Primary Producers3.5949.7237.9535.2610.3951.55
2. Modifiers and Manufacturers of Materials33.5122.0425.5327.9356.8429.55
3. Distributors of Materials18.227.1210.2017.2010.865.11
4. Transport Carriers, &c.12.995.066.59
5. Domestic Service15.519.1010.809.6411.366.67
6. Professional Service12.255.276.806.236.193.56
7. Undefined Services3.931.692.132.240.873.56

The importance of such considerations sufficiently justifies all means taken to acquire accurate knowledge concerning the local laws which determine the allocation of the workers of the people to the different classes of employment, and such considerations also demand that all information so obtained should be based upon the most perfect form of classification, so that all the important relationships may be truly determined.


With slight modifications the Conference of Statisticians at Sydney in March, 1900, determined to adopt the systematic form of classification of occupations drawn up for the Census of 1891 in the various colonies of Australasia, and since recognized by Statisticians as "The Australian Method," and, therefore, it was according to this system that the occupations of the people of the Australasian Colonies were tabulated at the recent Census.

Prior to the Australasian Census of 1891 the Statisticians in these colonies generally followed the ex&le of England in its classification of occupations ; but the English method, originally devised by the late Dr. Farr (Deputy Registrar-General of England), although of considerable value, had many serious defects. Dr. Farr in his method of classification endeavoured to frame the groups or combinations as far as possible according to thematerialson which people worked. So far as minor groups and combinations are concerned the method was fairly successful, but as regards the principal divisions of occupations it could not form a safe guiding principle, for it is obvious that all classes of workers must often be related to the self-same materials, and separation into the principal classes of occupations could not possibly be successfully based upon this method. It is not surprising, therefore, that Dr. Farr's classification should present many defects and anomalies. For ex&le, Class II. (Domestic) and Class VI. (Indefinite and Non-productive) confusedly mixed up the grand broad economic distinctions which should keep separate Breadwinners and Dependants. Similarly Primary Producers, Distributors, and Manufacturers were indifferently mixed together under three very distinct classes, viz., Commercial (Class III.), Agricultural and Pastoral (Class IV.), and Industrial (Class V.). It is obvious, therefore, that the lack of any clearly defined principle for determining the limits of the great naturally distinct classes, themselves, led the original classifier into great perplexities ; for we find Fishermen, Veterinary Surgeon, and Farrier grouped under the Pastoral and Agricultural Class ; Chimney-sweep grouped with workers in Coal ; and the Miner, Quarryman, and other Primary Producers are classed together with a moiety of the Dealers, along with Nightsoil-men, Artisans, and Manufacturers.

The whole of the members of the Australasian Conference of Statisticians of 1890 were so thoroughly impressed with the defects of this older system of classification of occupations that they resolved to draw up an amended scheme of classification, in which the distinctions, which naturally separated the principal groups of Bread-winners and Dependants, would be more clearly defined. A Sub-committee, consisting of my distinguished friend Mr. T. A. Coghlan, Government Statistician of New South Wales, and the author, was accordingly appointed to draw up such a scheme of classification of occupations, systematized into classes, orders and sub-orders. The scheme drawn up by the Sub-committee referred to and embodying certain principles already agreed upon, with slight amendments, eventually received the unanimous approval of the members of the Conference, and it was according to this new system of classification that the people of the Australasian Colonies were tabulated at the Census of 1891, and, with very slight modification in some of the groupings, it was again adopted throughout the Australasian Colonies at the recent Census of 1901.

The amended classification is divided into eight principal classes. The first seven embrace all independentBread-winners ;and the eighth, or last class, embraces allDependants.The three important classes related toMaterialsare kept separate by regard to the relationship which theirdiffering servicesbear to the materials which pass through their hands. Thus, Primary Producers of Raw Materials directly acquired by labour from natural sources bring naturally into one class (Class VI.) those engaged in Agriculture, Grazing, Fishing, Hunting, Forestry, and Mining. Transporters, Dealers, or Distributors, who effect no material change in Producers' materials, come naturally together in Classes III. And IV. ; while all skilled and unskilled modifiers or constructors of materials, in a similar way, come naturally together in Class Industrial (Class V.).

The Domestic Class (Class II.) no longer includes wives and others engaged at home in domestic duties for which no remuneration is paid, nor dependent relatives or children.

The Professional Class (Class I.) only includes these ministering to Religion, Charity, Education, Art, Science, and Amusement, and those connected with the General and Local Government, and in Defence, Law, and Protection. All persons employed by the General and Local Government, whose occupations are properly related to Producing, Commercial, and Industrial Groups, are classed with the latter, as it is obvious the main value of such classification is to ascertainhow employed,and notby whom employed.The exact extent of the Government Service can be easily obtained by reference to the Civil List, and by direct reference to Local Governmental Centres throughout the country.

Additional information regardingAgesof Persons employed, and also as regardsGrade,(whether employer, employed on own account, relative assisting without receiving an express remuneration for services, wage-earners), was also provided for, as such information, lacking in former Censuses, was of the greatest value. Information regarding the numbers unemployed during the week preceding the Census was also obtained at the same time.

The following Summary and Table convey a comprehensive idea of the principles and plan of the improved mode of classification of occupations as drawn up and finally adopted by the Conference at Sydney in the year 1900.

Table defining the Principles of the Method adopted in the Classification of Occupations, in accordance with the uniform Scheme agreed upon by the Conference of Statists held in Sydney in February and March, 1900 ; and showing the number of Persons, Males, and Females employed or belonging to the principal Groups of Business, Calling, or Service, or belonging to the Principal Divisions of Dependants, arranged systematically under Classes, Sub-Classes, Orders, Sub-Orders, and Sub-Groups.


Section A.—Bread-winners.


Embracing all persons, not otherwise classed, mainly engaged in the government and defence of the country, and in satisfying the intellectual, moral, and social wants of its inhabitants.


Embracing all persons engaged in the supply of board and lodging and in rendering personal services for which remuneration is usually paid.


Embracing all persons directly connected with the hire, sale, transfer, distribution, storage, and security of property and materials.


Embracing all persons engaged in the transport of persons or goods, or in effecting communication.


Embracing all persons not otherwise classed, who are principally engaged in various works of utility, or in specialities connected with the manufacture, construction, modification, or alteration of materials so as to render them more available for the various uses of man, but excluding as far as possible all who are mainly or solely engaged in the service of commercial interchange.


Embracing all persons mainly engaged in the cultivation or acquisition of food products, and in obtaining other raw materials from natural sources.


Embracing all persons who derive incomes from services rendered, but the direction of which services cannot be exactly determined.

Section B.—Dependants : Non-Bread-winners.

VIII. DEPENDANTS.—Embracing all persons dependent upon relatives or natural guardians, including wives, children, and others not otherwise engaged in pursuits for which remuneration is paid ; and all persons depending upon private charity, or whose support is a burthen on the public revenue.

Systematic Tabulation of Occupations* under Classes Orders and Sub-Orders., CLASS I.PROFESSIONAL.
Order 1.—Persons engaged in Government, Defence, Law, and Protection, not otherwise classed.
Sub-Order 1.—General Government.
The Governor111
Officer of Government Department (exclusive of Officers specially classified)22962879
Others (including persons holding Ministerial or Political Office whose occupation is not stated)311
[* NOTE.—The main object of this table is to ascertain as closely as possible the total number of hands actually employed in each specified Business, Calling, or Industry indicated by a distinct number ; and hence the totals of latter embrace not only those persons whose calling particularly distinguishes the form of business, but also persons of all other subordinate occupations, not otherwise specified within the same Sub-order, who receive remuneration for assistance in the conduct of the particular Business or Calling.]

The actual number of persons belonging to each distinctive Occupation,irrespective of the nature of the general Business or establishment in which they are employed, may be ascertained from the Classification of Occupations, arranged according in alphabetical order in Table XXI. These alphabetical tables also serve as indices to the specific Occupations grouped under this le and all other General Classification Tables.

Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-order 2.—Local Government.
Officer of Local Body or Municipal Council218383
Others (including Mayors or Members of Local Bodies whose ordinary occupation is not stated)2
Sub-order 3.—Defence.
Officer of Defence Department3155
Army Officer in actual service255
Anry Non-commissioned Warrant Officer, Private3293293
Naval Officer in actual service466
Naval Petty Warrant Officer, Sailor, Marine588
Others (including Volunteer, whose ordinary occupation is not stated) *6
Sub-order 4.—Law and Order
Officer of Law Department4144
Law Court Officer, Clerk31717
Sheriff's Officer, Bailiff51010
Barrister, Solicitor6155155
Law Clerk (not articled)7120120
Las Student, Articled Clerk82424
Others connected with the Law933
Police, Principal Officer102626
Police, Subordinate Officer, Policeman, Detective11220220
Penal Principal Officer1211
Penal, Subordinate Officer, Warder1339318
Order 2.—Persons ministering to Religion, Health, Education, Art, and Science.
Sub-order 1.—Religion.
Irregular Clergy, Salvation Army Officer2684028
Theological Student311
Church Officer, verger415141
Member of Religious Order, not classified as ministering to Charity of Education5725
Sub-order 2.—Charity (exclusive of Hospitals).
Officer of Department of Charity21
Officer of Charitable of Benevolent Institution21284
Subordinate Officer or Servant, Charitable or Benevolent Institution322715
Sister of Charity43434
Sub-order 3.—Health.
Officer of Health Department.3122
Sanitary Inspector, Inspector of Nuisances266
Medical Practitioner3103103
Medical Student411
Irregular Medical Practitioner511
Pharmaceutical Chemist, Druggist71391345
Hospital or Asylum Nurse8126126
Hospital or Asylum Officer (or Attendant not otherwise described)91137241
Midwife, Monthly Nurse102020
Sick Nurse11358358
Veterinary Surgeon121414
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-order 4.—Literature.
Author, Editor, Journalist4170682
Literary Amanuensis, Shorthand Writer3633
Sub-order 5.—Science.
Officer of Scientific Department of State25166
Analytical Chemist2541
Assayer, Metallurgist36060
Geologist, Mineralogist433
Naturalist, Biologist, Botanist511
Sub-order 6.—Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Architecture, and Surveying.
Civil Engineer619393
Directing or Consulting Engineer222
Electrician (not connected with Telegraph or Telephone Service or Electric Light)33131
Draftsman (not otherwise described)62121
Sub-order 7.—Education Department.
Officer of Education Department7144
University Professor, Demonstrator, Lecturer, &c.266
Professor, Lecturer, Teacher, College, Grammer, High School31174
Schoolmaster, Schoolmistress, Teacher, Public School4555207348
Schoolmaster, Schoolmistress, Teacher, Denominational School57474
Schoolmaster, Schoolmistress, Teacher, Private School697889
Schoolmaster, Schoolmistress, Teacher, undefined741067343
Tutor, Governess818012168
Teacher of Languages (or other accomplishment not Art or Music)9725
Sub-order 8.—Fine Arts.
Artist, Painter, Art Student81441529
Engraver (Art only)3
Photographer, Retoucher4947717
Sub-order 9.—Music.
Composer of Music91
Musician, Vocalist, Student of Music2342113
Music Professor, Teacher, &c.319229163
Music Rall Proprietor, Manager, &c.4
Sub-order 10.—Amusements.
Actor, Actress, Circus Performer10126179
Theatre, Hall Proprietor, Lessee, Manager, Doorkeeper, Ticket-taker299
Racecourse, Ranger, Caretaker, Secretary355
Cricket Ground, Bowling Green, Caretaker, Professional Player533
Billiard Table Proprietor, Keeper, Marker64545
Zoological Gardens, Menageric, Keeper, Attendant, &c.7
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Order 3.—Persons engaged in the supply of Board and Lodging, and in rendering Personal Service for which remuneration is usually paid.
Sub-order 1.—Board and Lodging.
Hotelkeeper, Innkeeper, Relative Assisting, Servant3111,016594422
Coffee Palace, Restaurant, Tea-toom, Eating-house Keeper, Servant21183781
Board, Lodging-house Keeper, Relative Assisting, Servant332237285
Club-house Manager, Secretary, Steward, Servant43131
Sub-order 2.—Domestic Service and Attendance.
Servants' Registry Office Keeper32144
House Servants25,1251734,952
Personal Attendants396195
Paid Companion56666
Coachman, Groom6379379
Bath Proprietor, Attendant833
Porter, Gatekeeper9651
Officekeeper, Attendant10651
Charwoman, Cleaner118989
Hairdresser, Barber121561506
Mangler, Laundry-keeper, Laundryman, Washerwoman1334811337
Sub-class A.—Property and Finance.
Order 4.—Persons who perform offices in connection with the exchange, valuation, insurance, lease, loan, or custody of money, houses, land, or property rights.
Sub-order 1.—Banking and Finance.
Bank Director, Banker41155
Bank Manager, Officer, Clerk2198198
Building Society, Savings Institute Director, Manager, Officer, Clerk31111
Share and Stock Broker, Dealer, Jobber, Speculator4113113
Money-broker, Financier, Capitalist5216108108
Pawn-broker, Loan Officekeeper611
Public Accountant, Auditor799
Sub-order 2.—Insurance and Valuation.
Manager, Director, Agent of Insurance Company421155155
Actuary, Average Stater2
Underwriter, Marine Surveyor355
Auctioneer, Appraiser, Valuator47171
Friendly Benefit Society Officer5
Official or Trade Assignee622
Sub-order 3.—Land and Household Property.
Land Proprietor, Speculator431246140106
Land and Estate Agent, Broker22121
Others connected with dealings in Land311
House Proprietor4292150142
House Agent, Rent Collector588
Market Lessee6
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-order 4.—Property Rights (not otherwise classified.)
Officer of Patents, Trade Marks Department44111
Patentee, Owner of Trade Mark, &c.2
Patent, Trade Mark Agent311
Others connected with various Property, Rights, and Transfers477
Sub-class B.—Trade.
Order 5.—Persons dealing in Art and Mechanic productions in which matters of various kinds are employed in combination.
Sub-order 1.—Books, Publications, and Advertising.
Bookseller, Book Canvasser51155496
Circulating Library Proprietor, Librarian2853
Advertising Agent, Bill-poster, Bill-distributor399
News Agent, Newspaper Vendor425223
Sub-order 2.—Musical Instruments.
Musical Instrument Importer, Seller52166
Sub-order 3.—Prints, Pictures, and Art Materials.
Picture Dealer531
Map and Print Dealer2
Art, Photographic Requisites' Importer, Dealer322
Picture-frame Dealer4
Sub-order 4.—Ornaments, Minor Art Products, and Small Wares.
Carving, Figures, Dealer541
Basket, Wickerware, Dealer2
Artificial Flowers, Dealer3
Fancy Goods, Dealer4281711
Stuffed Birds, Animal Dealer5
Toys and Minor Arts, Products, Dealer611
Sub-order 5.—Equipment for Sports and Games.
Billiard, Bagatelle, Table, and Appliances, Dealer551
Fishing Rod, Tackle, Dealer2
Cricket, Football, Tennis, &c., Requisites, Dealer3
Sub-order 6.—Designs, Medals, Type, and Dies.
Designs, Patterns, Medals, Type, and Dies, Dealer561
Sub-order 7.—Watches, Clocks, Jewellery, Platedware, and Scientific Instruments.
Watch, Clock, Jewellery Importer, Dealer57153521
Scientific Instruments Importer, Dealer2
Electro-plate Wares Importer, Dealer3
Sub-order 8.—Surgical Instruments and Appliances.
Surgical Instruments and Appliances Dealer581
Sub-order 9.—Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives.
Arms, Explosives Dealer59111
Pyrotechnic, Fireworks Dealer2
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-order 10.—Machines, Tools, and Implements.
Agricultural Machinery, Implement Dealer510133
Sewing Machines Importer, Dealer218153
Other Machines, Tools, Implements, Dealer366
Sub-order 11.—Carriages and Vehicles.
Carriage, Waggon, Cart Dealer5111
Bicycle Importer, Dealer266
Coachmaker' Sundaries Dealer3
Perambulator, Wheel, chair Importer, Dealer4
Sub-order 12.—Harness, Saddlery, and Leatherware.
Saddlery, Harness Importer, Dealer512144
Saddlers' Ironmonger2
Leather and Grindery Merchant, Dealer333
Sub-order 13.—Ships, Boats and their Equipment, and Marine Stores.
Ships and Boats Dealer5131
Tackle and Equipment for Ships and Boats Dealer2
Sub-order 14.—Building Materials and House Fittings.
Material for Houses and Buildings Dealer514111
House Fittings Dealer211
Oil and Colourman, Glass, Paperhangings Dealer355
Sub-order 15.—Furniture.
Furniture Dealer5151
Second-hand Furniture Dealer, Broker249427
Sub-order 16.—Chemicals and By-products.
Chemical Materials (not Drugs) Dealer5161
Chemical by-products Dealer2
Wholesale Druggist3211
Sub-order 17.—Paper, Papermakers' Materials, Stationery.
Paper Merchant, Importer5171
Rag, Waste Paper Dealer3
Order 6.—Persons engaged in the Sale, Hire, or Exchange of Textile Fabrics and Dress and of Fibrous Materials.
Sub-order 1.—Textile Fabrics.
Manchester Warehouseman, Wholesale Draper6111271225
Draper, Linen, Woollen Draper2708513195
Silk Mercer, Dealer3
Sub-order 2.—Dress.
Clothier, Outfitter, Slopseller6211212
Men's Mercer, Hatter, Hosier, Haberdasher2761
Millinery, Bonnet, Hat Dealer31919
Shoe, Boot Dealer4835330
Umbrella, Parasol, Stick Dealer5
Fur, Rug Dealer611
Second-hand Clothes Dealer7
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-order 3.—Fibrous Materials.
Mat, Matting Dealer631
Rope, Cord Dealer2
Canvas, Sailcloth Dealer3
Tent. Tarpaulin Dealer4
Bag, Sack Importer, Dealer5
Order 7.—Persons engaged in Dealing in Food, Drinks, Narcotics, and Stimulants.
Sub-order 1.—Animal Food.
cheesemonger, Dairy Produce Dealer2312
Provision Merchant, Dealer411
Poulsterer, Game Dealer51082
Fishmonger, Oyster Dealer647485
Sub-order 2.—Vegetable Food.
Flour, Grain Merchant, Dealer7212626
Bread, Biscuit Dealer21019
Confectioner, Pastry Dealer347238
Greengrocier, Fruiterer, Potato Dealer416210458
Sub-order 3.—Groceries, Drinks, Narcotics, and Stimulants.
Wine and Spirit Merchant, Australian Wine Seller7313333
Cordials, Aerated Waters Seller2
Cocoa, Coffee, Chicory, Agent, Dealer3
Grocer, Tea Dealer448642363
Opium Dealer6
Order 8.—Persons engaged in dealing in and treating Animals, and dealing in Animal and Vegetable Substances, excluding Dealers in Food.
Sub-order 1.—Living Animals.
Live-stock Dealer8111010
Animal Trainer, Horse Breaker25555
Bird Fancier3
Sub-order 2.—Manures and Animal Waste Products.
Manure, Guano Dealer82122
Bone-dust Dealer2
Sub-order 3.
Hide, Skin Dealer8311010
Prepared Skins, Leather Dealer244
Sub-order 4.—Wool and other Animal Matters.
Wool Broker, Merchant84120191
Tallow Merchant, Dealer211
Bone, Horn, Hoof, Hair Merchant, Dealer3
Feather Dealer4
Sub-order 5.—Seeds, Plants, Flowers, Vegetable Products for Fodder, and Gardening purposes.
Seed Merchant8511266
Florist, Flower and Plant Seller222148
Produce, Hay and Corn Merchant, Dealer31171161
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-order 6.—Other Vegetable Matters not included elsehwhere.
Timber Merchant.8618585
Bark Merchant, Dealer266
India Rubber Wares Dealer311
Order 9.—Persons engaged in dealing in Minerals or other Substances mainly used for Fuel and Light.
Sub-order 1.—Coal and other Substances mainly used for Fuel and Light.
Coal, Coke Merchant, Deale911871
Lignite, Shale, Peat, Charcoal Burner2
Firewood, Fuel Merchant, Dealer32512483
Petroleum, Kerosene, Paraffin Importer, Dealer4
Order 10.—Persons engaged in dealing in Minerals other than for Fuel and Light.
Sub-order 1.—Stone, Clay, Earthernware, Glass, and Minerals not otherwise classed.
Stone, Gravel, Sand Dealer1011
Lime Merchant, Dealer222
Cement, Plaster, Dealer3
Brick, Tile Dealer4
Potteryware, Earthernware Dealer5
Glassware Dealer6
China, Crockeryware Dealer71596
Sub-order 2.—Gold, Silver, and Precious Stones.
Gold, Silver Buyer1021
Precious Stones Dealer2
Sub-order 3.—Metals other than Gold and Silver.
Tin, Zinc Merchant Dealer1031
Antimony, Lead Dealer2
Copper, Brass Dealer3
Iron, Ore, Pig Iron, Scrap Iron Dealer4
Iron, Galvanized Iron, Wire Importer, Dealer5
Ironmonger, Hardware Dealer61861824
Order 11.—Persons engaged as General Dealers or in Mercantile Pursuits not elsewhere classed.
Sub-order 1.
Merchant, Importer, undefined11112752687
Storekeeper, Shopkeeper21,178858320
Dealer, Trader31019011
Hawker, Pedlar4938310
Broker, Agent53939
Commission Agent6103103
Sub-order 2.—Other Mercantile Persons.
Officer of Public Company, Society11211111
Clerk, Cashier, Accountant, Commercial or other undefined230726641
Commercial Traveller, Canvasser, Salesman, undefined313310429
Order 12.—Persons engaged as Speculators in Chance Events.
Sub-order 1.—Chance Events.
Lottery Keeper, Agent1211
Turf Commission Agent, Sweep Promoter23232
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-class C.—Storage.
Order 13.—Persons engaged in Storage.
Bonded, Free Store, Proprietor, Manager, Clerk1311
Bonded, Free Store, Storeman, Worker2
Others engaged in Storage322
Order 14.—Persons engaged in the Transport of Passengers, Goods, or in keeping Communication.
Sub-order 1.—On Railways (not Construction)
Railway Officer, Station Master, Clerk1411219219
Railway Officer, Engine Driver, Fireman2178178
Railway Officer, Guard, Porter, Servant321417833
Railway Officer, Ganger, Fettler4113113
Railway Officer, Employee, Labourer54684644
Sub-order 2.—On Roads.
Cable Tramway Owner, Officer, Clerk1421
Cable Tramway Conductor, Gripman, Engine-driver, Employee2
Steam Tramway Owner, Officer, Clerk355
Steam Tramway Conductor, Driver, Firteman, Employee43333
Electric Tramway Owner, Officer Clerk566
Electric Tramway Conductor, Driver, Engine-driver, Employee65757
Horse Tramway Owner, Officer Clerk7
Horse Tramway Conductor, Driver, Employee822
Tramway Employee, undefined
Coach, Omnibus, Cab Proprietor98888
Coach, Omnibus, Cab Driver, Conductor101051041
Parcels Delivery Agent, Driver Clerk114141
Drayman, Carrier, Carter, Teamster, Horse-driver (not otherwise classed)126156132
Livery Stable Keeper1341392
Sub-order 3.—On Seas and Rivers, and the Regulation thereof.
Harbours and Rivers Department, Marine Board, Ferry Service Officer14315252
Lighthouse-keeper, Superintendent35050
Shipowner, Shipping Agent, Manager, Clerk41161142
Shipmaster, Officer, Seaman (Merchant Service)5673673
Engineer, Stoker, Coal-trimmer of Steamer (Merchant Service)6250250
Steward, Stewardess, Ship-servant716415311
Canal Proprietor, Agent, Manager8
Barge Master, Lighterman92222
Stevedore, Lumper, Wharf Labourer10517517
Boat Proprietor, Boatman, Waterman1114131
Ferry, Punt Lessee, Worker121414
Wharf Owner, Lessee Wharfinger1366
Sub-order 4.—On Postal Service.
Postal Officer, Postmaster, Clerk, Sorter1441342112230
Letter Carrier260591
Mail Contractor32929
Mailman, Mail-guard433321
Sub-order 5.—On Telegraph and Telephone Service.
Telegraph Officer, Station Master, Operator, Clerk145112910623
Electrician, Lineman23838
Telephone Officer319514
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-order 6.—Delivery of Documents, Parcels, and Messages by Hand.
Messenger, Porter14615252
Errand Boy, Girl22727
Order 15.—Persons engaged in connection with the manufacture or in other processes relating to Art and Mechanic Productions in which materials of various kinds are emoployed in combination.
Sub-order 1.—Books and Publications.
Publisher, Newspaper Proprietor151116151
Printer, Printer's Manager, Clerk224623511
Machinist, Stereotyper, and others engaged in Printing413121
Bookbinder, Manufacturing Stationer (all Branches)5733538
Sub-order 2.—Musical Instruments.
Musical Instrument Maker152144
Musical Instrument Tuner, Repairer21111
Sub-order 3.—Prints, Pictures, and Art Materials.
Lithographer, Lithographic, Zincographic Printer15311717
Picture-frame Maker, Picture Restorer, Cleaner288
Artists' Materials Manufacturer, Artists' Colourman3
Sub-order 4.—Ornaments, Minor Art Products, and Small Wares.
Carver (all Branches), Carver and Gilder15411010
Image Maker, Modeller222
Basket-maker, Wicker-worker52424
Artificial Flower-maker, Art Needleworker677
Paper Bag, Box-maker7422
Brush, Broom-maker830246
Sub-order 5.—Equipment for Sport and Games.
Billiard, Bagatelle Table Manufacturer1551
Cricket, Lawn Tennis Equipment Maker2
Gymnasium Equipement Maker3
Fishing-tackle Maker4
Sub-order 6.—Designs, Medals, Type, and Dies.
Type Founder, Maker1561
Die Sinker2
Engraver (not Art), Pattern Designer3541
Rubber-st& Maker411
Sub-order 7.—Watches, Clocks, and Scientific Instruments.
Watch, Clock, Chronometer Maker157181801
Scientific Instrument Maker2
Telegraph, Telephone Instrument Maker4
Electrical Apparatus Maker511
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-ordre 8—Surgical Instruments and Appliances.
Surgical Instrument Maker1581
Surgical Appliances, Truss, Bandage Maker2
Sub-order 9.—Arms, Ammunition, and Explosives.
Torpedo Maker2
Explosives Manufacturer3
Fuse, Cartridge Maker4
Shot Maker522
Fireworks Maker6
Sub-order 10.—Engines, Machines, Tools, and Implements.
Engine Maker, Fitter, Mechanical Engineeer15101291291
Agricultural Machinery and Implement Maker422
Sewing Machine Maker, Repairer511
Cutler, Tool Maker, Repairer622
Gas, Water-meter Maker711
Scale, Weighing Machine Maker, Adjuster8
Sub-order 11.—Carriages and Vehicles.
Railway Carriage, Wagon, Tram-car Builder151113939
Coach, Carriage, Wagon, Cart Builder2163163
Bicycle Maker32020
Parambulator, Wheel-chair Maker4
Sub-order 12.—Harness, Saddlery, and Leatherware.
Saddlery and Harness Maker, Whip Maker151211781771
Leather Belting2
Leather-cutter, Designer311
Portmanteau Maker422
Saddle-tree Maker5
Fancy Leather Worker6
Sub-order 13.—Ships, Boats, and their Equipment.
Shipbuilder, Shipwright, Boatbuilder151316666
Block, Oar, Mast Maker3
Graving Dock, Patent Slip Proprietor, Manager5
Dock Engine-driver, Labourer622
Sub-order 14.—Furniture.
Furniture Manufacturer, Cabinet-maker, Bedstead-maker151411741713
Bed, Mattress-maker, Upholsterer249445
Sub-order 15.—Building Materials and other Manufactures comprised mainly of Timber.
Sawmill Proprietor, Worker (exclusive of Forest Sawmills)15151485485
Joiner, Door-sash, Mantelpiece Maker2
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-order 16.—Chemicals and By-products.
Manufacturing Chemist (not otherwise classed)1516144
Ink, Blacking Manufacturer2
Salt, Soda, Alkali, Starch, Blue Maker3
Chemical Manure Maker4
Eucalyptus Oil Maker577
Paint Manufacturer611
Order 16.—Persons engaged in connection with the Manufacture of in Repairs, Cleansing, or in other Processes relating to Textile Fabrics, Dress, and Fibrous Materials.
Sub-order 1.—Textile Fabrics.
Cotton Manufacturer, Spinner, and other Workers (all Branches)161122
Woollen Manufacturer, Spinner, and other Workers (all Branches)21094465
Silk Manufacturer, Spinner, and other Workers (all Branches)3
Dyer, Scourer477
Flock Manufacturer5743
Sub-order 2.—Dress.
Clothing Manufacturer, Tailor, Dressmaker16212,0733291,744
Hat, Cap, Bonnet Maker2514
Milliner, Staymaker, Glovemaker41673164
Sockmaker, Knitter512210
Furrier, Rugmaker6844
Bootmaker, Shoemaker (all Branches)793985683
Umbrella, Parasol Maker855
Feather-dresser, Glove-cleaner933
Sub-order 3.—Fibrous Materials.
Mat Maker163144
Rope, Cord Maker2
Canvas, Sail-cloth Maker3
Tent, Tarpaulin Maker4
Bag, Sac Maker522
Order 17.—Persons in connection with the Manufacture or in other Processes relating to Foods, Drinks, Narcotics, and Stimulants.
Sub-order 1.—Animal Food.
Slaughterman, Abattoir Worker17112222
Meat, Bacon, Ham Curer, Preserver21111
Fish Curer311
Butter, Cheesemaker, Factory Worker432311
Animal Food Refrigerator5
Sub-order 2.—Vegetable Food.
Miller, Maisena Manufacturer1721142142
Baker, Biscuit, Pastry Maker255452232
Fruit Preserver, Jam Maker318514144
Sugar Mill Owner, Sugar Refiner5
Sub-order 3.—Groceries, Drinks, Narcotics, and Stimulants.
Brewer, Bottler, and others engaged in Brewing1731110110
Distiller and Rectifier of Spirits, Bottler333
Wine Manufacturer (not grower)4211
Cordial Aerated Water Manufacturer (all Branches)583812
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-order 3.—Groceries, Drinks, &c.—continued.
Coffee Roaster6
Tea-mixer, Taster7
Tobacco, Cigar, Cigarette Manufacturer8
Ice Manufacturer944
Spice Manufacturer10752
Condiment-maker (all Branches)1199
Order 18.—Persons not otherwise classed, engaged in connection with Manufacturers or other processes connected with Animal and Vegetable Substances.
Sub-order 1.—Animal Matters (not otherwise classed).
Soap, Candle Manufacturer181165587
Tallow-melter, Boiling-down Worker211
Fellmonger, Woolwasher32828
Tanner, Currier (all Branches)4111111
Bone-dust, Manure Manufacturer544
Sub-order 2.—Working in Wood (not otherwise classed).
Firewood-cutter, Chopper1821259259
Fencer, Hurdle Maker27373
Bark-mill Owner, Worker366
Sub-order 3.—Workers in Vegetable Produce for Fodder.
Corn Crusher2
Oil and Seed-cake Maker3
Sub-Order 4.—Paper Manufacture.
Paper Manufacturer (all Branches)1841
Order 19.—Persons engaged in the Alteration, Modification, or Manufacture, or in other Processes, relating to Metals or Mineral Matters.
Sub-order 1.—Manufactures and Processes relating to Stone, Clay, Earthernware, Glass, and Minerals not otherwise classed.
Monumental, Marble Mason, Stone-cutter, Dresser19114242
Plaster-maker, Cement Manufacturer3
Brickmaker, Tile Manufacturer4136136
Pottery Maker522211
Glass Manufacturer, Worker611
Crockery, Earthenware Repairer, Maker711
Asphalt Maker8
Asbestos Manufacturer9
Sub-order 2.—Workers in Jewellery, Precious Stones, and Mining.
Lapidary, Precious Stones Worker2
Electro-plater, Plater311
Persons engaged in Minting4
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-order 3.—Workers in various Metals (not elsewhere classed).
Tinsmith, Smelter, Worker1931138138
Zinc, Antimony, Bismuth, Smelter, Worker2
Silver, Copper, Lead, Smelter, Worker3681681
Malleable Iron and Steel, Manufacturer, Smelter, Worker433
Pig Iron Manufacturer, Smelter, Worker522
Iron-founder, Moulder, Worker6118118
Brass-founder, Moulder, Brazier, Worker71717
Galvanized Iron Worker (all Branches)8
Wire and Cable Manufacturer, Worker9
Blacksmith, Striker, Farrier10832832
Order 20.—Persons engaged in the conversion of Coal and other Substances to purposes of Heat, Light, or Forms of Energy not otherwise classed.
Sub-order 1.—Working in Fuel, Light, and other Forms of Energy.
Gas Manufacture and Supply Officer, Worker20117070
Coke Manufacture, Burner2
Electro-light or Energy Producer, Worker33636
Hydraulic-power Producer, Worker4
Charcoal Burner577
Kerosene Oil Manufacturer6
Order 21.—Persons engaged in the Construction or Repair of Buildings, Roads, Railways, Canals, Docks, Earthworks, &c., or in operations the nature of which is undefined.
Sub-order 1.—Houses and Buildings.
Builder, Contractor, Manager, Foreman, Clerk21112302291
Stonemason, Hodman, Labourer2111111
Bricklayer, Hodman, Labourer3222222
Carpenter, Labourer41,3811,381
Slater, Shingler566
Plasterer, Modeller6116116
House-painter, Paper-hanger, Glazier73353341
Plumber, Gasfitter, Bellhanger8127127
Sub-order 2.—Roads, Railways, Earthworks, &c.
Road, Railway, Bridge, Telegraph, Wharf Contractor2121164164
Skilled Assistant, Foreman, Inspector, Manager24747
Carter, Teamster322
Enginedriver, Fireman41717
Navvy, Labourer, Platelayer51,0901,090
Stone breaker, Contractor, Road Metal61515
Dredge-worker, Diver755
Drainer, Pavior, Asphalt Worker811
Order 22.—Presons engaged in the Disposal of the Dead, or of Refuse.
Sub-order 1.—Disposal of the Dead.
Cementery Keeper, Grave Digger299
Sub-order 2.—Disposal of Refuse.
Seavenger, Street Cleaner22213535
Chimney Sweep21212
Sanitary Contractor, Nightman31313
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Order 23.—Industrial and other active Workers Imperfectly defined.
Sub-order 1.—Imperfectly Defined.
Mechanic, Manufacturer (so defined)23112121
Factory, Worker, Manager (so defined)22121
Engineer, Enginedriver, Stoker (so defined)3299299
Machinist, Machine Hand (so defined)416133
Contractor, Manager, Apprentice, Foreman (so defined)51991972
Labourer (undefined)64,3974,397
Order 24.—Persons directly engaged in the Cultivation of Land, in Breeding and Rearing Animals, or in obtaining Raw Products from Natural Sources.
Sub-order 1.—Agricultural Pursuits.
Farmer and Relative Assisting241111,2929,7201,572
Farmers, Agricultural and Pastoral19494
Farm Manager, Overseer2157157
Farm Manager, Overseer35,2825,26814
Farm Servant, Agricultural, Pastoral, and General37777
Market Gardener437634728
Fruitgrower, Orchardist5858707151
Hop, Cotton, Tea, Coffee Grower6660352308
Tobacco Grower7
Horticulturist., Gardener104814801
Agricultural Department Officer111616
Sub-order 2.—Pastoral Pursuits.
Grazier, Pastoralist, Stock-breeder, and Relative Assisting242142039525
Station Manager, Overseer, Clerk26969
Stock-rider, Drover, Shearer, Shepherd, Pastoral Labourer34854841
Dairy Farmer, and Relative Assisting4782466316
Dairy Assistant, Milker5927616
Poultry Farmer624195
Stock and Brands Department Officer766
Sub-order 3.—The Capture, Preservation, or Destruction of Wild Animals, or the acquisition of Products yielded by Wild Animals.
Kangaroo-hunter, Rabbiter23223202
Wild Fowl, Game Keeper, Hunter311
Sub-order 4.—Fisheries.
Fisheries, Department Inspector, Officer244111
Oyster-bed Lessee, Worker, Shell-fish Catcher3
Engaged in Whale, Seal Fishery411
Sub-order 5.—Forestry, or the acquisition of Raw Products yielded by Natural Vegetation.
Forest Department Ranger, Officer245111
Forest Sawmill, Proprietor, Worker21661651
Axeman, Woodman, Timber-getter, Splitter33533512
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Sub-order 5.—Forestry, &c.—continued.
Collector of Pith and Fibre-yielding Plants5
Sub-order 6.—Engaged in the Conservation of Water in all its forms, and in Water Supply from Natural Sources.
Conservation of Water Department Officer246144
Conservation of Caretaker, Worker22121
Water Supply (private) Officer, Worker, Well-sinker3
Water-carrier, Carter4
Sub-order 7.—Mines, Quarries, or the acquisition of Natural Mineral Products.
Mines Department Officer24711515
Mines Gold (quartz), Proprietor, Manager, Worker2661661
Mines Gold (alluvial), Proprietor, Manager, Worker37070
Mines Gold (undefined) Proprietor, Manager, Worker4130130
Mines, Tin (lode), Miner, Worker5101101
Mines, Tin (alluvial), Proprietor, Manager, Worker61,0981,098
Mines, Silver, Proprietor, Manager, Worker71,3301,330
Mines, Coal, Proprietor, Manager, Worker81381371
Mines, Iron, Worker944
Mines, Copper, Manager, Officer, Miner, Worker101,0461,046
Mines, Shale, Manager, Officer, Miner, Worker11
Mines, Precious Stones, Manger, Worker12
Mines, others and undefined, Manager, Worker13674674
Quarry Proprietor, Manager, Clerk1477
Quarryman, Worker15193193
Order 25.—Persons whose occupations are undefined or unknown, embracing those who derive incomes which cannot be directly related to any other class.
Sub-order 1.—Persons of Independent means having no specific occupation, or undefined.
Independent means, Lady, Gentleman (so returned)3388168220
Order 26.—Persons dependent upon Natural Guardians.
Sub-order 1.—Domestic duties for which remuneration is not paid.
Wife, Mother, Widow261124,09124,091
Son, Daughter, Relative29,0019,001
Boarder, Lodger47777
Sub-order 2.—Dependant Scholars and Students.
Son, Daughter, Relative, and others supported at University262110811
Son, Daughter, Relative, and others at School230,00015,53815,371
Son, Daughter, Relative, and others taught at Home33,8701,7542,125
Sub-order 3.—Dependant Relative and others not stated to be performing Domestic Duties.
Father, Mother (dependent upon Children)2631784220564
Son, Daughter, Relative (including persons under 20 years of age) with unspecified occupations226,85213,52313,329
Classification of Occupations—continued.
Order 27.—Persons dependent upon the State, or upon Public or Private support.
Sub-order 1.—Supported by Voluntary and State Contributions.
Inamte of Hospital27111758491
Inmate of Benevolent Institution2615309308
Inmate of Hospital for Insane3410221189
Inmate of Boys' Home and Industrial School412825103
State Child5351619
Inmate of Night Refuge6
Inmate of Refuge7521537
Pauper, Beggar8321418
Sub-order 2.—Criminal Class (under legal detention).
Inmate of Gaol, Penal Establishment272176715
Inmate of Gaol, Lock-up, Watch-house211
Inmate of Reformatory, Industrial School35353
DISTRIBUTION OF OCCUPATIONS UNDER TWENTY-FOUR ORDERS., Table, showing numerically and centisimally, Persons, Males, and Females, living in Tasmania belonging to Twenty-four Orders of Occupations, arranged under their respective Divisions and Classes.
All Classes172,47589,62482,851100.00100.00100.00
Breadwinners (Classes I. to VII.)73,49457,58515,90942.6164.2519.20
Dependants (Class VIII.)98,98132,03966,94257.3935.7580.80
Nature of Services.Classes.
Personal and ImmatorialI. Professional4,9973,0671,9302.903.422.33
II. Domestic7,9371,4636,4744.601.637.82
Distributors of MaterialsIII. Commercial7,4976,0971,4004.356.811.69
Transport of Goods, &cIV. Transport & Communication4,8484,5183302.815.04.39
Modifiers of MaterialsV. Industrial18,75016,4752,27510.8818.382.75
Primary Producers of Materials.VI. Primary Producers27,89925,4392,46016.1728.382.97
IndefiniteVII. Indefinite1,5665261,0400.900.591.25
DependantsVIII. Dependants98,98132,03966,94257.3935.7580.80
Services, Personal and Immaterial.
Persons not otherwise classed, engaged in or ministering to—
I.1Government, Law, Defence, and Protection1,3291,31217.771.46.02
2Religion, Charity, Health, Education, Science, and Amusement3,6681,7551,9132.131.962.31
II.3Board and Lodging and Personal Service7,9371,4636,4744.601.637.82
Distributors of Materials.
III.4Property and Finance1,3641,0083567.791.12.43
Traders and Dealers in—
5Art and Mechanic Productions, various35930554.211.34.07
6Textile Fabrics, Dress, and Fibrous Materials957707250.55.79.30
7Food, Drink, Narcotics, and Stimulants1,5301,301229.891.46.28
8Animals, and Animal and Vegetable Substances34532916.20.38.02
9Minerals mainly used for Fuel and Light2592554.15.28.00
10Other Minerals20519510.12.21.01
11General Dealers and other undefined Mercantile Pursuits2,4371,9604771.422.19.58
12Speculators in Chance Events39354.22.04.00
IV.14Transport and Communication4,8484,5183302.815.04.39
Modifiers, Manufactures of Materials.
Workers in—
V.15Art, Mechanic Productions, various2,4452,368771.424.08.09
16Textile Fabrics, Dress, and Fibrous Materials3,3681,2692,0991.962.192.54
17Foods, Drinks, Narcotics, and Stimulants1,2171,13384.711.93.10
18Animal and Vegetable Substances5825757.33.99.01
19Metals and Minerals2,0522,05111.193.54.00
20Substances for Heat and Light, not otherwise classed120120.06.21.00
21Construction and Repair of Buildings, Roads, Railways, Canals, Docks, Earthworks, &c3,9263,92422.286.76.00
22Disposal of the Dead or Refuse87861.05.14.00
23Industrial Workers imperfectly defined4,8534,94942.888.52.01
Primary Producers of Materials.
VI24Agricultural, Pastoral, Mineral, and other Primary Producers—
Workers in—
24aAgricultural Pursuits19,42217,3482,07411.26.402.50
24bPastoral Pursuits1,8811,5183631.09.04.41
24cMines and Minerals5,4675,46613.17.13.00
24dOther Primary Producers1,1291,10722.65.02.09
VII.25Indefinite Occupations1,5665261,040.905.041
VIII.26Wives Children, and Relatives dependant upon Natural Guardians97,40431,23066,17456.4834.8579.88
27Other Dependents upon the State or upon Public or Private Support1,577809768.91.90.92

So far as the principal division into Breadwinners and Dependants are concerned, the preceding analysis shows the following proportion, viz. :—

Order of Importance as regards the principal groups relative to Total Population.

The following summary shows, in respect of Persons, Males, and Females, the order of importance as regards the proportion which each class bears to the Total Population :—

Percentage Proportion to Total Population
1. Dependants57.391. Dependants35.751. Dependants80.80
2. Primary Producers16.172. Primary Producers28.382. Personal Services (domestic)7.82
3. Modifiers of Materials10.883. Modifiers of Materials18.383. Primary Producers2.97
4. Personal Services (domestic)4.604. Distributors of Materials6.814. Modifiers of Materials2.75
5. Distributors Services (domestic)4.355. Transporters5.045. Professional Services2.33
6. Professional Services2.906. Professional Services3.426. Distributors Services1.69
7. Transporters2.817. Personal Services (domestic)1.637. Indefinite1.25
8. Indefinite Services.908. Indefinite.598. Transporters.39


Occupations of Breadwinners, however, are the main consideration from an economic point of view, and therefore it is of advantage to consider this group by itself, as shown in the following table, where the percentage proportion of each class and principal sub-class is given relative to total Breadwinners :—

BREADWINNERS—NUMBERS AND PROPORTIONS—CLASSES AND SUB-CLASSES, 1901., Table showing, in respect of the Total of all Classes and of Breadwinners, the Numbers and Proportions per cent. of Persons, Males and Females, belonging to the different Divisions, Classes, and Sub-Classes of Occupations, according to the new classification adopted in Census of 1901.
Persons.Males.Females.In relation to All Classes.In relation to Breadwinners.
All Classes172,47580,62482,851100.00100.00100.00234.70155.64520.82
Breadwinners (I-VII.)78,49457,58515,90942.6164.2519.20100.00100.00100.00
Dependants (VIII.)98,98132,03966,94257.3935.7580.80134.7055.64420.82
A.Property and Finance1,3641,008356.791.13.431.871.752.30
IV.Transport and Communication4,8484,5183302.815.04.396.597.852.07
VI.Agricultural, Pastoral, Mineral, and other Primary Producers
D.Other Primary Producers1,1291,10722.651.24.021.531.42.14

Relative Importance of the Principal Classes of Breadwinners in Tasmania during Census Years 1891 and 1901.

The following summaries indicate for the Census years 1891 and 1901 the relative importance of the principal classes of Breadwinners in Tasmania, proceeding in the order of numerical importance in the year 1901, for Persons, Males, and Females, thus :—

Per cent.Per cent.Percent.Percent.
1. Primary Producers—
Agricultural and Pastoral28.9830.1032.7634.05
2. Industrial (Modifiers)25.5326.0828.6229.07
3. Commercial and Transport (Distributors)—
Property and Finance1.872.511.752.35
4. Domestic Services10.8011.692.542.93
5. Professional ServicesIllegibleIllegible5.325.56
6. Indefinite2.131.850.911.16
All Breadwinners100.00100.00100.00100.00
Per cent.Per cent.
1. Domestic Services40.6145.73
2. Primary Producers—
Agricultural and Pastoral15.3214.74
3. Industrial (Modifiers)14.3014.49
4. Professional Services12.239.56
5. Commericial and Transport—
Property and Finance2.304.09
6. Indefinite6.534.52
All female Breadwinners100.00100.00

It is important to observe the great distinction between the proportions of male and female workers. The normal relationship of the division of services in Tasmania at present demands that out of every 100 male Breadwinners 44 must devote themselves to the primary industries (Agricultural, Pastoral, Mining, &c.) ; 29 to industrial pursuits, 18 to Commercial and Transport services, and 9 to all other occupations.

Out of every 100 female Breadwinners 41 must devote themselves to Personal and Domestic Services, 15 to Agricultural and Pastoral Pursuits, 14 to Industrial Pursuits, 12 to Professional Services, 11 to Commercial and Transport Services, and 7 to all other occupations.

So far as countries at the agricultural and pastoral stage of development are concerned it would seem that the numbers engaged in the Primary Industries determine very rigidly the number of persons that may be employed with advantage in any other form of occupation. At this stage, therefore, the latter may well be termed the Dependant Occupations, and their relative proportions cannot suffer much disturbance without producing disastrous results in some branches of industry. It would appear also that these proportions are independent of such considerations as the general sparseness or density of the population, and therefore it is evident that fresh accessions of workers, whether from within (the local rising generation), or from without (immigrants), must be prepared to seek employment in directions harmonizing with the local natural conditions which determine the proportional numbers of the great divisions of services, and which have already been referred to in the introductory remarks regarding Occupations of the People.

Broadly speaking, therefore, it would appear that the local conditions at the present time are such that, for every 10,000 persons employed as Breadwinners there must be 3795 of them engaged in one or other of the Primary Industries. In other words every 1000 persons engaged directly in the Primary Industries of the State makes it possible for 1634 persons, or thereabout, to find room for employment in some other useful occupation ; and that for every 1000 persons placed as Breadwinners on the land there can be economically supported 6182 souls.

Although these figures depict the general law for the colony, as a whole the proportions in Rural and Urban districts vary with the dominant industries of the place, the former approximating to the proportions obtaining in large centres of population, like England and Scotland, where manufacturing industries dominate, the latter approximating to the world's average, in which agricultural and pastoral industries dominate, and absorb on the average nearly the half of all available kinds of labour.

The following table shows the varying proportions of each of the principal classes of breadwinners in the Urban and Rural Districts of Tasmania, with which are given for purposes of comparison corresponding proportions relating to other countries at similar and differing stages of development :—

OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE—DISTRIBUTION BY ELECTRICAL DISTRICTS—BREADWINNERS, CENTESIMAL PROPORTION, 1901., Table showing the Percentage Proportion of Breadwinners (Persons) living in the State, in Urban Districts, in Rural Districts, as a whole, and in each Electoral District, distinguishing the various Classes and principal Sub-classes.
Districts.Breadwinners (Presons).
All Breadwinners.Class I. Professional.Class II. Domestic.Class III. Commercial.Class IV. Transport and Communication.Class V. Industrial.Class VI.—Primary Producers.Class VII. Indefinite.
All Primary Producers.Agriculture.Pastoral.Mines and Minerals.Other Primary Producers.
The whole State100.006.8010.8010.206.5925.5337.9526.432.557.441.532.13
City of Hobart100.0012.2515.5218.2212.9933.513.591.
City of Launceston9.7216.0620.458.2538.614.
Rural Districts5.
C&bell Town5.8315.067.106.6820.1542.5322.489.971.278.812.65
Devon West4.417.334.853.9020.0857.9454.751.181.44.571.49
George Town4.899.577.634.7319.7651.4315.092.3430.693.311.99
New Norfolk6.385.763.192.0017.5864.0062.341.00.33.331.09
NewSouth Wales1,8916.6412.5618.9230.3129.3314.746.916.581.092.24
South Australia1,891
West Australia1,8915.9610.7820.2325.7235.2618.317.565.084.312.05
New Zealand1,8916.269.8617.0927.9035.8223.363.786.701.983.07
England & Wales1,8815.615.713.444.216.611.
Estimated average of 15 great countries*
[* Based upon results obtained from 15 great countries, forming a fairly close approach to a complete circuit of commercial exhange, and embracing a population of over 433 millions.]

The proportions of the various classes of Industry differ very widely with each place and country, but in a complete circle of exchange it is estimated that nearly half of all Breadwinners must be occupied in the production of primary materials or raw products from the land. Wherever the primary producers are much below the world's average, it indicates that the local supply of some of the necessary raw products is deficient, and must be made good mainly by exchange of local manufactured products, as in the case of England, or as in the exchanges between urban and rural districts generally.

OCCUPATIONS.—1891.—NUMBERS AND PROPORTIONS COMPARED., Table showing the Number of Persons having in the State at the last two Censuses, belonging to the principal divisions of Occupations, according to the new classification adopted in the Census of 1901 ; also showing the proportions per cent. of each Division, Class, and Group in relation to all Classes and to Breadwinners respectively ; and in respect of the Census of 1901, showing absolutely and relatively the Increase or Decrease since previous Census., Persons.
Occupations.Numerical.Centesimal.Increase or Decrease (—).
1891.1901.1891.1901.Numerical.Per cent.
All Classes146,667172,475100.00100.0025,80817.59
Mercantile Persons, House Proprietors, and General Dealers6,3267,4974.314.351,17118.51
Transport and Communication—
Carriers and Messengers on Railways6861,1940.470.6950874.06
Carriers on Roads5761,0780.390.6350287.13
Carriers on Seas and Rivers1,5721,8851.071.093131.99
Postal Service2404650.160.2722593.76
Telegraph and Telephone Service1932260.140.13331.71
Toral Transport and Communication3,2674,8482.232.811,58148.40
Industrial(including Commercial Dealers in specific branches of Trade)—
Working and Dealing in Art and Mechanic Productions1,5642,4451.071.4288156.33
Working in Textile Fabrics and Dress2,8033,3671.911.9656420.12
Working in Food and Drinks8151,2170.560.7140249.32
Working in Animal and Vegetable Substances7885820.540.34-206-26.14
Working in Minerals and Metals (exclusive of Workers in Mines and Quarries)6,6566,1854.533.58-4717.07
Industrial Workers undefined3,3904,9542.312.875641.66
Total Industrial16.1618,75010.9210.882,73417.07
Agricultural, Pastoral, Mineral, and other Primary Producers—
Agricultural Pursuits16,03119,42210.9311.263,39121.15
Pastoral Pursuits2,4471,8811.671.09-566-23.13
Mines and Quarries3,9885,4672.723.171,47937.09
Other Primary Industries1,1021,1290.750.65272.45
Presons of Independent Means6716580.460.37-131.93
Undefined as regards Means and specific Occupation4659080.320.5344395.28
Total Indefinite1,1361,5660.780.9043037.84
Wives, Children, Relatives57,10362,59738.9336.295,4949.62
Scholars and Students26,36034,80717.9720.188,44732.04
Public Burden1,7931,5771.23.92-2161.20
Total Dependants85,25698,98158.1357.3913,72516.09

From the above table it would appear that the general order of relative importance, both of classes and sub-classes, have undergone very little change since the previous Census was taken.

Occupations related to the Land.

The occupations related to the primary industries engaged upon the land, from their importance, invite our special attention ; and it is satisfactory to note that the largest, absolute increase among the Breadwinners, viz., 4331, or 18.38 per cent. above the numbers of the previous Census, occurs in this division. It is still more satisfactory that the principal industry of the State, so far at least as the employment of labour is concerned (Agriculture), has increased in numbers beyond that of any other group or sub-division. The workers in this important industry have increased by 3391, or 21.15 per cent., during the decade.

The actual increase in the number of hands however does not adequately indicate the progress made during the decade, so far as Agriculture is concerned. Important economic conditions in farming operations throughout the civilized world are converting the old-fashioned hand-labourer on the farm, day by day, into an expert, skilled in the use of all kinds of labour-saving agricultural machinery. This important change, during the last twenty years, is gradually reducing the number of farm hands required to cultivate, say, each 100 acres under crop, while at the same time effecting a larger yield of products, both absolutely and relatively.

This is made evident by comparing the average under crop, the value of products, and the number of hands employed in Agriculture in the last three Census years in Tasmania, as in the following summary :—

1881.1891.1901.Increase or Decrease in 20 years.
Increase per cent.Decrease per cent.
Acres in cropacres148,494168,121232,55056.6
Hands employedNo.17,69916,03119,42211.0
Hands per 100 acres in cropNo.11.299.538.3529.9
Produce per Handpound47.2978.4980.4070.0

By this striking comparison it is shown that within the period of twenty years, although the number of hands required to cultivate each 100 acres in crop has been reduced from 11.92 to 8.35, or nearly 30 per cent., the absolute value of products has increased by 86 per cent., and the value of products per hand, owing to the improved methods of cultivation, has actually increased by £33 per hand, or 70 per cent.

It has thus been made manifest that the wonderful improvement in labour-saving machinery, which has so largely come into use during the last twenty years, enables the farmer to till the land more effectively than formerly, with fewer hands.

It is true that the progress of Agriculture in later years is not so rapid, relatively, as it was formerly, both in Australia and Tasmania. One of the most potent causes which has operated in retarding agricultural progress in Australasia is that the land already under crop more than suffices for the Australasian market, and the expansion of the surplus designed for the distant market of the United Kingdom is checked by the gradually falling prices in that market, which is open to the keen competition of the closer and greater producing centres of America and Russia, not to mention the produce of India, created by a class of agriculturists whose low standard of living or wages enables them to undersell the Australasian producer, crippled as he is, not merely by the immense obstacle of distance, but also by the much higher standard of living fortunately enjoyed by the labourer in these States.

Grades of Occupations.

In the last Census schedule a column was again inserted, as in 1891, for the purpose of ascertaining the grades of all workers, such as employer, engaged on own account, and wage-earner. Further particulars of the latter were also obtained, separately distinguishing the number employed during the week preceeding Census day, and the number of relatives assisting employer in business or work whose services were not necessarily rewarded in expressly stated wages.

The following is a summary of the information so obtained in respect of all Breadwinners as heretofore defined :—

Grades of Breadwinnes in Tasmania, 1901.
No.Per cent. to Total specified
Engaged on own account12,17816.89
Ordinary at work46,24962.99
Ordinary unemployed2,1652.95
Relatives assisting employer in his business6,1608.39
Total wage-earners54,57474.33
Total specified73,419100.00


The classes in which the Employer 8 showed the largest proportion was that devoted to Pastoral pursuits, the lowest, proportion was among Mineral producers. The following shows the order of the classes and sub-classes in relation to the percentage proportion of employers, beginning with the highest :—

Percentage Proportion of Employers to Breadwinners in each Class.
Per cent.
1. Pastoral Producers17.32
2. Agricultural Producers15.69
3. Trade14.95
4. Property and Finance11.36
5. Other Primary Producers6.84
6. Industrial6.05
7. Professional4.52
8. Transport, Communication4.14
9. Domestic Services4.07
10. Indefinite2.63
11. Mineral Producers2.43

Engaged on own account.

The highest proportion of this Group is in Class Indefinite, and the lowest in Class Domestic, thus :—

Percentage proportion of those engaged on own account to Breadwinners in each Class.
Per cent.
1. Indefinite75.50
2. Property and Finance54.25
3. Other Primary Producers24.62
4. Agricultural Producers22.36
5. Pastoral Producers21.92
6. Trade (Commercial)19.34
7. Professional16.93
8. Mineral Producers9.88
9. Industrial9.33
10. Transport and Communication74.2
11. Domestic7.03


The highest proportion of this group is in Domestic Service and in Transport and Communication, the lowest in Indefinite and Property and Finance ; thus:—

Percentage proportion of those engaged as Wage-earners to Breadwinners in each Class.
Per cent.
1. Domestic Service88.90
2. Transport and Communication88.44
3. Mineral Producers87.69
4. Industrial84.02
5. Professional78.55
6. Other Primary Producers68.54
7. Trade65.71
8. Agricultural Producers61.94
9. Pastoral Producers60.76
10. Property and Finance34.39
11. Indefinite21.87


The total number of Unemployed recorded was 2165, or 2.95 per cent. The highest proportion of the Unemployed was in the Mineral Producer Class, 5.48 ; the lowest in Indefinite, 0.39 per cent. ; thus :

Percentage Proportion of unemployed Wage-earners to Breadwinners in each Class.
Per cent.
1. Mineral Producers5.48
2. Industrial4.83
3. Transport and Communication3.69
4. Domestic Service2.82
5. Trade (Commerce)2.62
6. Professional1.72
7. Pastoral Producers1.60
8. Other Primary Producers1.52
9. Agricultural Producers1.28
10. Property and Finance0.73
11. Indefinite0.39

The proportion of unemployed in 1901—2.95 per cent. to all Breadwinners— is higher than in 1891, when it was 2.54 per cent. From such returns as are yet available from other States it is also satisfactory that the condition is favourable to Tasmania.

The following summary gives a more comprehensive account of the numbers and proportions of the various grades of Occupations in Tasmania at the last Census :—

OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE, 1901.—GRADES, &c., Table showing the Numbers and Proportions per cent. of Persons living in the State belonging to the several Divisions, Classes, and principal Sub-classes of Occupations, distinguishing the grades of Employer, Employed on own account, relative assisting, and Wage-earner ; also, distinguishing the Unemployed and the Dependents.
ClassSub-Class.Occupations.Grade, &c.—Numerical.—(Persons.)Grade, &c.—Centesimal Proportion.—(Specified.)
TOTAL.Employer.Engaged on own account.Relative assisting.Wage-earner.Unemployed.Dependant.Undefined.TOTAL.Employer.Engaged on own account.Relative assisting.Wage-earner.Unemployed.Dependant.
I.-VII.All Classes172,4756,06712,1786,16046,2492,16598,98175100.003.877.063.5726.831.2557.42
III.A.Property and Finance1,364155740245710111.3654.250.1433.520.73
IV.D.Transport and Communication4,848201360494,0591794.147.421.0183.743.69
V.Primary Producers27,8993,5615,5645,13512,9875945812.8019.0818.4446.642.13
V.D.Other Primary Producers1,12977277816731746.8424.627.2059.821.52
On Natural Guardians97,40497,404100.00
On the State or Public Charity1,5771,577100.00

Ages of Breadwinners, 1901.

An analysis of the ages of Breadwinners is of the greatest interest in matters concerning the employment of children in various branches of industry. The following gives the numbers and proportions under seven different Age-Groups in respect of all Breadwinners :—

Age-Group.No.Per cent. to Total specified.
Under 5 years
5 and under 15 years3,0244.12
15 and under 20 years12,18216.60
20 and under 25 years11,59515.80
25 and under 45 years29,88340.72
45 and under 65 years12,41216.91
65 and over4,2935.85
Total specified73,494100.00

Ages 5 and under 15 years.

The highest proportion of the 3024 Children employed was in Other Primary Producers (8.95 per cent.), the lowest in Property and Finance (0.06 per cent.) ; thus :—

Proportion of Children (5 to 15) employed to Breadwinners in each Class.
Per cent.
1. Other Primary Producers8.95
2. Agricultural Producers6.57
3. Pastoral Producers5.90
4. Domestic Service5.39
5. Trade4.37
6. Industrial3.26
7. Transport and Communication2.47
8. Professional0.97
9. Mineral Producers0.93
10. Property and Finance0.66
11. Indefinite0.06

Aged Persons, 65 and over.

The highest proportion of the 4293 persons aged 65 years and over was in Indefinite (36.44 per cent.), the lowest in Mineral Producers (2.18 per cent.) ; thus:—

Proportions of Aged Persons (65 and over) employed to Breadwinners in each Class.
Per cent.
1. Indefinite36.44
2. Property and Finance26.43
3. Agricultural Producers7.89
4. Pastoral Producers6.32
5. Professional4.31
6. Trade3.96
7. Industrial3.82
8. Other Primary Producers3.72
9. Transport and Communication2.99
10. Domestic Service2.94
11. Mineral Producers2.18

The following summary gives a more comprehensive account of the numbers and proportions of Breadwinners and Dependants under the various Age-Groups :—

OCCUPATIONS OF THE PEOPLE, 1901,mdahs;AGES., Table showing the Numbers and Proportions per cent. of Persons living in the State belonging to the several Divisions, Classes, and principal Sub-Classes of Occupations under various Age-Groups.
Class.Sub-Class.Occupations.Ages-Numerical—(Persons).Ages—Centesimal Proportion—(Specified Ages.)
All Ages.5.- 15.- 20.- 25.- 45.- 65.65 and over.Unspecified Ages.All Ages specified.5.- 15.- 20.- 25.- 45.- 65.65 and over.
I.-VIII.All Classes172,47520,86543,16018,45116,41047,05419,3657,023147100.0012.1025.0410.7227.3011.239.534.08
III.B.Property and Finance1,3649769939142736020.665.587.2628.7131.3626.43
IV.Transport & Communication4,8181205327332,40490914552.4710.9815.1449.6518.772.99
VI.Primary Producers27,8991,5404,5643,79711,1405,0241,813215.5216.3713.6239.9518.046.50
VI.D.Other Primary Producers1,1291012191574521574218.9519.4113.9240.0813.923.72
VIII.A.On Natural Guardians97,40420,82339,9306,1464,69516,8396,7132,2322621.3841.026.314.8217.296.892.29
VIII.B.On State or Public Charity1,57742206123120332240498162.6913.207.887.6821.2715.3731.91



Before bringing this Report to a close it has been thought desirable to add as a supplement certain particulars from the General Statistics of the State for the years 1891 and 1901 for the purpose of marking in what degree the State has made progress in the inter-censal period in matters lying beyond the scope of a Census—e.g.Public Finance, Taxation, Trade, Production, Modes of Transport, Communication, Accumulation, &c. For this purpose the following abstract has been compiled in a form convenient for tracing the changes which have taken place :—

General Statistical Summary for the Years 1891 and 1901 showing the difference between the two Census Years., Area—26215 Square Miles.
11891.1901.Increase since 1891.
Absolute.Per Cent.
Population on 31st December152,252174,23321,98114.44
Population, mean for year148,757173,60624,84916.70
Births4,9714,930- 41- .82
Deaths2,2341,803- 429- 19.21
State and Commonwealth (1).
From Customs£367,130401,89425,7646.85
From Excise£17,32722,5495,22230.14
Other Taxes£108,681110,6631,3821.27
Total Revenue£883,199954,31171,1128.05
Total Net Revenue (2)£593,481613,33019,8493.34
General Expenditure.
Interest on Loans (gross)263,853322,74658,89322.32
Total Expenditure£851,559998,590147,03117.26
Total Expenditure (2)£561,840657,60995,76917.04
Total Net less net Inderest on Loans£304,039343,46639,42712.97
Loand Expenditure.
On Railways£254,32180,948
Other Public Works£307,339261,046
Total, current year£561,601341,994
Public Debt on 31st Dec£7,110,2908,854,5411,744,25124.53
Imports2,051,9641,965,199- 86765- 4.23
Exports—Wool£418,460280,347- 138113- 33.01
Silver, Silver Ore, and Silver-Lead£62,138325,335263,197423.50
Copper and Copper Ore£1,026,7481,026,748
Tin£293,170212,542- 80628- 27.50
Total Gold, Silver, Copper, and Tim£488,3211,768,7891,280,468202.15
Total per cent. to total Exports33.8960.03
Total Home Products£1,367,9272,933,8781,565,951114.47
Total Exports£1,440,8182,945,7571,504,939104.45
Shipping—Total Tonnage1,044,6061,432,725388,11937.15
Railways (2)—Miles open42561819345.41
Train miles941,1651,181,191180,02619.10
Cost of Construction£3,282,4894,961,2911,678,80251.14
Telegraphs (4)—Miles Poles2,0822615¼533¼25.60
Cost of Construction£198,663305,947107,28454.00
MessagesNo.456,396363,414- 9298220.37
Receipts£32,57630,684- 18925.81
Post Office—Offices3283764814.64
Letters and Post Cards5,852,38111,173,4935,321,01290.93
Newspapers and Packets6,682,0019,678,7782,996,77744.84
Receipts (5)£72,41095,41123,00131.77
Working Expenses (5)£78,62297,47018,84823.97
Banks—Deposits (Ordinary)£4,073,6313,187,831- 885800- 21.75
Property—Assessed Annual Value£1,061,1821,012,967- 48215- 4.54
Agriculture—Wheat — Acres47,58444,084- 3500- 7.36
Oats — Acres28,36054,08925,72990.72
Land in Crop—Acres168,121232,55064,42938.32
Live Stock—Horses31,31232,3991,0873.47
Pigs73,52058,716- 14804- 20.13
[1 The State Departments of Customs and Excise, Post and Telegraphs, and Defences having been transferred to the Commonwealth Government during 1901, the moneys received and distributed by the Commonwealth on account of Tasmania during 1901 have for comparison been included in the particularls for that year.] [2 i.e. Gross Revenue less Revenue earned by Service Departments and Interest on balance at deposit, &c.] [3 Including Private Lines.] [4 Including Cable.] [5 Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones.] [6 New Industry.]


In conclusion, I am reminded that this is the second Census in Tasmania that I have had the honour of superintending, viz., 1891 and 1901. On the present occasion I was fortunate in having the assistance of the officers of the permanent staff of the Department, who, with myself, had been advantaged by the experience gained in the organization and superintendence of all matters pertaining to the enumeration and tabulation of the previous Census of the year 1891. My deputy, Mr. F. M. Hudspeth, as on the former occasion, was placed in immediate charge of the temporary staff engaged in the intricate work of tabulation, and it affords me great pleasure again to record that in this important trust he gave me the greatest satisfaction by the excellent way in which he discharged his onerous duties. The other members of my permanent staff also, from their training and experience, were of the greatest service, accepting with enthusiasm the extra hours and duties thrown upon them by the Census work.

I desire also to mention that my own labours in the organization and superintendence of all matters relating to the taking of the Census were made lighter than they would otherwise have been by the kind and willing co-operation of the officers of the various Public Departments where their assistance was necessary in carrying out certain branches of Census work. Among these I desire to mention specially the Government Printing Office, in respect of all matter relating to the printing of the Census work ; the Surveyor-General, in respect of maps and diagrams ; the Post and Telegraph Department for valuable aid in posting notices and promptitude in delivery of important documents and messages ; to the Police Department, to the Education Department, to all Heads of Schools and Colleges, to Resident Magistrates and Wardens, and to the Press generally for invaluable aid in affording information, and in advising as to the best mode for making provision for isolated districts. Again also I desire to acknowledge the never-failing courtesy of the Statisticians of the sister States in supplying such information as I required for comparative and other purposes.

I have the honour to be,


Your most obedient Servant,


Government Statistician, and Registrar-General.


Town, Village, or Locality

Street, and Name or Number of Dwelling

Census Sub-division No.—

CAUTION.—Any person willfully refusing or neglecting to fill up, sign, and deliver the Schedule, or to answer the necessary inquiries which the Collectors are required to maks, or furnishing false returns or answers, or obstructing any person in the performance of any duty imposed on him by "The Census Act, 1901," shall be liable to a Penalty of Twenty Pounds.

The information given in this Schedule is only to be used for the compilation of Statistical Returns and Accounts. Any person divulging it or making use of it for any other purpose is liable to a Penalty of Twenty Pounds.



Photo-lithographed by John Vail. Government Printer., Hobart. Tasmania.

I certiry that the above Return in correct to the beat of my knowledge and belief. Witness my hand

Signature of Occupier or Person in charge, or of a Collector.


THIS Schedule is to be filled up in accordance with the headings to the columns on the other side, BY THE OCCUPIER OR PERSON IN CHARGE OF THE DWELLING, with particulars respecting all the persons who slept or abode therein on the night of SUNDAY, the 31ST MARCH, 1901, together with those travelling or out at work during that night (and not included elsewhere), and who return to this House or Dwelling on MONDAY, 1ST APRIL. If the house is occupied by different families in separate stories or apartments, each such story or apartment must be treated as a separate DWELLING, and the OCCUPIER OR PERSON IN CHARGE of each must make a Return upon a separate Schedule. In the case of large Pastoral and other similar Establishments the Proprietor or Superintendent may fill in the Returns of his complete Establishment, but a separate Schedule must in such case be filled for each of the Outstation Dwelling-houses or Huts in which a distinct family or person resides, in addition to that for the Home Station ; and if any Out-station is in a different Collector's District from that of the Home-station, the Schedule for it is to be delivered to the Collectors of the Sub-district in which such dwelling is situated.

This paper will be called for by the Collector on Monday, the 1st day of April, or as soon after as practicable. By that date the answers should be written in the proper columns, and the document duly signed by the Occupier or Person in Charge. It is the Collector's duty to verify the facts, and, if the form, from any cause, should not have been filled up, or should have been insufficiently or erroneously filled up, to record the necessary particulars or make the necessary corrections, from inquiries which he is authorized to make for that purpose.



Every answer should be written in full. The use of dots (,,) or ditto (do.) leads to numerous mistakes, and is not to be accepted by the Collectors.

Name and Surname. (1)Sex. (2)Age last Birthday. (3)Condition as to Marriage. (4)Relation to Head of Household. (5)Production or Occupation.Sickness and Infirmity. (8)Country where Born. (9)Length of Residence. (10)Religious Denomination. (11)Education.—*See Note.Description of Dwelling. (14)
Nature of Name. (6)Grade, &c. (7)Degree. (12)At present receiving Instruction. (13)
James WilliamsM.59M.HeadWharf LabourerW.N.Accident (Gua)United States (P.)4Wesleyan MethodistR.Wood8240
Jane WilliamsF.56M.WifeDomestic DutiesScotland4CongregationalistC.R.
John WilliamsM.31N.M.SonShip CarpenterW.Victoria.4Church of EnglandR.W.
Alex. WilliamsM.27N.M.SonLabourer at BreweryW.New South Wales2ObjectR.W.
Peter WilliasM.25N.M.SonClerk in Insurance OfficeW.TasmaniaUnitarianR.W.
Neil WilliamsM.21N.M.SonTim Miner, AlluvialW.TasmaniaChurch of EnglandR.W.
Samuel WilliamsM.34N.M.NephewEngine Driver to MillerW.England2Protestant, no denominationR.
Mary SmithF.10NieceScholarTasmaniaCongregationalistR.W.S.
Sarah ScholtzeF.42D.LodgerMillinerO.Germany (N.)3LutheranR.W.
Mary JackF.14N.M.ServantDomestic ServantW.TasmaniaPrimitive MethodistR.
James RobinsonM.57M.HeadFarmer and J.P.E.England21Church of EnglandR.W.Stone14C100
Mary RobinsonF.42M.WifeDomestic DutiesDeafIreland21Roman CatholicR.W.
James RobinsonM.22N.M.SonAssisting on FarmA.Born at Sea19BapistR.W.
John RobinsonM.20N.M.SonStudent at UniversityVictoria19Church of EnglandR.W.U.
Jane RobinsonF.12DaughterScholarTasmaniaRoman CatholicR.W.H.
John RobinsonM.10SonScholarTasmaniaChurch of EnglandR.W.P.
Mary RobinsonF.xDaughterInfantTasmaniaRoman Catholicx
Mary DaviesF.23N.M.NieceAssisting in DairyA.Canada.15Free Church of ScotlandR.W.
Jane GarthF.32W.GovernessGovernessW.United States14Roman CatholicR.W.
Jules BecarriM.42W.VisitorCivil EngineerO.Italy (P.)xFreethinkerR.W.;M.A., O.
Peter SmithM.24N.M.VisitorChainman to Land SurveyorW.N.SickSouth Australia2Presbyterian Church of Tas.R.
Ah. LungM.36N.M.ServantCookW.China (C.)4BuddhistR.W.(F.)
Janet BeadingF.39N.M.ServantNurseW.Tasmania (H.C.T.)Salvation ArmyC.R.
For Degrees M.A., B.A., B.Sc., &c.—O.
If Oxford University,addC.
If Cambridge University,addX.
If Cambridge University,addE.
If London University,addD.
For Receiving Instruction—
At University or College, writeU.
At State School, writeS.
At Private School, writeP.
At Home School, writeM.



Issued with the approval of the Hon. the Chief Secretary, under Sect. 9 of Census Act, 1901.



THE first duty of an Enumerator is to make a careful study of the chart or charts (sent herewith) upon which the area forming his district is defined. [First duty.]


TheEnumerator's Districtexactly corresponds with that of a particular Electoral District (House of Assembly), whose marginal boundary, dividing it from contiguous Enumerator Districts, is indicated by a well-defined blue border. Within thisblueboundary the coloured divisions of Municipal and Police (red), Registration (yellow), Road Trust (green), and County (brown) break up theEnumerator's Districtinto a series of irregularly shaped meshes, each one of which forms a distinctCensus Sub-division, distinguished by a specific number enclosed within a conspicuous coloured circle ; thus— [Enumerator's District defined by a blue border corresponding to limits of an Electoral District (H.A.)]


The next duty of the Enumerator will be to determine the number of persons necessary to perform the duties of Assistants orSub-enumeratorsas defined in separate Instructions. The instructions also given hereafter, however, must first be carefully studied, as they will materially aid the Enumerator in determining the number of Sub-enumerators necessary to perform the work required of them within the specified time. [Number of Sub-enumerators to be determined by Enumerator.]


The principal conditions to be observed in dividing the Enumerator's District in Sub-districts, each havingoneSub-enumerator or Collector, are briefly as follow :— [Conditions to be observed in determining the limits of each Sub-enumerator's Sub-District.]


Each Sub-district, so far as possible, must not comprise a larger area than admits of all the Schedules being called for by its (one) Sub-enumerator on Monday and Tuesday, the 1st and 2nd April. (In sparsely populated and unsurveyed Districts, however, some discretion is allowed to the Enumerator as to how far this rule can be adhered to without the risk of confusion as to boundaries, and in cases where there is difficulty of securing a sufficient number of competent Sub-enumerators). [Sub-districts must not embrace too large an area not too many dwellings.]


In apportioning each Sub-enumerator's work, the Enumerator must consider the distance to be traversed in going from dwelling to dwelling, and must therefore form the Sub-districts so as to comprise more dwellings where they lie near together, us in a town, and fewer when they lie far apart. Thus, in a town where dwellings adjoin or lie near together, the number included in the Sub-district may be from 200 to 250 inhabited houses ; in suburban districts, villages, or gold-fields, where the dwellings, though near, are more scaltered, the number may be from 100 to 200 ; in the more settled agricultural and pastoral districts, where there is, occasionally a distance of more than half a mile between one dwelling and the next nearest, the number may be from 50 to 100 ; and in the more scattered agricultural or thinly populated districts, where intervals of two miles or upwards sometimes intervene, less than 50 may be included in a Sub-district. [Limits of number of dwellings to a sub-district in town and country districts respectively.]


As regards arrangements for collecting among lands insulated by water, or in outlying pastoral, timber, fishing, mining, or prospecting localities, &c., the special circumstances affecting each must be taken into account both as regards the time to be allowed and the number of dwellings to be allotted to each Sub-enumerator. But in all cases the sooner the Schedules are collected after the 31st March the easier it will be to supply omissions or to rectify errors. No more time, therefore, should be allowed than is absolutely necessary. [Special arrangements for outlying localities.]


Each Sub-district must be composed of one or moreCensus Sub-divisions, whose external boundary must coincide exactly with the outer boundaries of the existingCensus Sub-divisionsforming its parts.Census Sub-divisionsshould not as a rule be divided so as to form parts of two separate Sub-districts. (Should it be shown to be impossible to adhere to this rule in all cases, the Enumerator must at once communicate with the Superintendent of Census, specifying the nature of the difficulty, and indicating by a well-defined pencil line the exceptional proposed boundary lines.) [Boundaries of Sub-district must coincide with coloured boundaries on Chart.]


It a fresh boundary line must be introduced, breaking up anexisting Census Sub-division, now indicated by a specific number within a coloured circle, add a distinguishing number to each of the divided parts as directed in the following ex&le :—

Thus, suppose a Census Sub-division—say (6)—be still further divided into two parts, then let each of the latter be afterwards distinguished in reference by similar rings in pencil, repeating the original Census Sub-division number, but distinguishing the divided parts by the additional figures, say 1 and 2—thus. By this means harmonious relationship with the original Census Sub-division may still be maintained ; for—that is, the original Census Sub-division is equivalent to its two parts taken together.


When the Enumerator has satisfactorily divided his District into Sub-enumerators' Sub-districts, in accordance with the foregoing instructions, he may indicate each of the latter by a series of Capital letters, A. B. C., &c., tracing their limits throughout and along existing coloured boundaries by abold pencil line.At the same time he must prepare a description of the limits and of theCensus Sub-divisionscontained in eachSub-districton the forms herewith supplied for that purpose. A model of one of these Forms, filled up, is here given as an ex&le, thus :— [Sub-districts to be distinguished by Capital Letters, and a description must be prepared on special Form.]


Sub-division of the Enumerator's District corresponding to the Electoral District of Fingal, (H. of A.)
Sub-district.Census Sub-division comprising each Sub-district.


Having marked the divisions of Sub-districts on charts, and having defined their limits on Boundaries Form, both Charts and Form must as speedily as possible be returned to Superintendent of Census in order that they may be finally approved of, and for the purpose of enabling the Superintendent of Census to prepare special separate tracings for each Sub-district so determined, for the guidance of each Sub-enumerator. [Chart and Boundary Form to be sent to Superintendent of Census.]


As soon as the latter are prepared, the Enumerator's charts will again be returned to the Enumerator for local reference, together with the Charts for Sub-enumerators. The Enumerator at the proper time will deliver the latter, with all necessary forms transmitted to him, to the respective Sub-enumerators for their guidance, taking care that any such maps are presented and returned finally at the proper time, along with the completed Returns, Books, and Schedules. [Sub-enumerator's Charts to be supplied, with other forms, &c.]


It is essential to the accuracy of the enumeration that the Sub-districts be well defined and clearly described, so that no doubt may exist among the Sub-enumerators as to which Sub-district any one house may belong, and that there may be no chance of the inmates being, through any such doubt, either omitted or numbered twice over. This can only be done effectually by adopting well-marked natural or artificial boundaries, such as rivers, creeks, the waterflow of gullies, streets, fenced-in or well-beaten roads, lines of electric telegraph, &c. The lines must be supposed to run down themiddle of the street, river, road, &c.,so that the houses or properties on one side may be in one Sub-district, and those on the opposite side in another. Imaginary lines drawn from point to point on maps are inadmissible, except in extreme cases. [Well-marked boundaries to be adopted.]


The Enumerator will bear in mind that the Sub-districts into which he divides his District must together form the whole of that District, and that no part is to be left out under the assumption that it is uninhabited. [The whole District to be subdivided.]


He will also understand that it is expedient that every Sub-District should be one connected portion of country, and should not consist of two or more detached portions. [Each Sub-district to be in one block.]


In connection with the period to be allowed for collection, as already referred to, that of distribution is to be considered ; and experience has shown that in densely peopled Districts, [Time allowed for distributing Forms.]

where the Sub-enumerators act on foot, one day for leaving the Schedules is sufficient, thus accomplishing the work by the labour of three days, viz., one for distribution and two for collection ; but where the population is more scattered, and the greater portion of the time is occupied in traveling from house to house, it will be necessary to allow an equal, or nearly equal, time for distribution and collection ; but no more time is to be allowed than is actually necessary for the purposes. The Sub-enumerators are not to be paid for the interval (if any) between the delivery and collection of the Schedules, during which there is nothing for them to do.


As an additional precaution against any misconception on the part of the Sub-enumerators as to their respective boundaries, it would be well that the Enumerator should endeavour, where possible, to collect them all together on some day prior to the taking of the Census, so that each, by conferring with the Sub-enumerators of the Sub-districts adjoining his division may arrive at a clear understanding of its exact boundaries. The Enumerator should take the opportunity of ascertaining whether the instructions to Sub-enumerators are properly understood, and of giving any explanation that may be wanted as to how the business of enumeration is to be performed, or any other matter left unexplained or doubtful in the instructions to Sub-enumerators. [Sub-enumerators to be assembled.]


In case of any doubt as to the exact boundary line between his own and an adjoining District, the Enumerator is recommended to communicate with the Enumerator of that District and to enter into such arrangement as will enable the Sub-enumerators on either side of the boundary to act in concert, so that neither omissions nor overlapping may occur. The Enumerator is requested to take every precaution that the persons he has appointed act in concord with each other, and with the Sub-enumerators of adjoining Districts. [Doubt as to boundaries.]



Having arranged the sub-division of his District, the next matter to occupy the attention of the Enumerator is the selection of as many Sub-enumerators as there are Sub-districts. [Selection of Sub-enumerators.]


The principal duties of the Sub-enumerators are described in the tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and eighteenth Sections of the Census Act, and in the more detailed instructions which have been drawn up for their guidance. With these clauses and instructions the Enumerator should make himself familiar. [Duties of Sub-enumerators.]


To fulfil his duties properly the Sub-enumerator must be a person of intelligence and activity, must not be less than eighteen years of age, must read and write well, and must be sufficiently healthy and strong to undergo the exertion of performing his work with promptness ; he must be of temperate habits and of sufficiently good address to convey all the requisite information concerning the Census in a manner calculated to obtain the good-will and co-operation of the inhabitants. It will likewise be necessary that he should be well acquainted with the Sub-district in which he is required to act. It being of the greatest importance that the work should be efficiently performed, no consideration whatever, except that of fitness for the performance of the duty, shall be suffered to influence the Enumerator in the appointment of Sub-enumerators. [Qualifications of Sub-enumerators.]


It is further desirable that each Sub-enumerator should live in or near his own Sub-district, so that he may not have the additional labour of going far from home before he can begin his duties. It is not, therefore, advisable that many persons living at or near the same place should be selected. This rule, however, is not prescribed as one to which a rigid adherence is required, but on which the Enumerator must exercise his discretion, remembering that character and fitness are most to be considered. [Sub-enumerators should live in their Sub-districts.]


The Sub-enumerators are of two classes—those acting on horseback and those acting on foot. The former are to be appointed only in country districts where a considerable distance has to be travelled in going from house to house. When mounted Sub-enumerators are employed, the Enumerator should see that horses are actually used, and that the Government is not improperly charged with the extra allowance paid to that class when the work has been performed on foot. [Horse and foot Sub-enumerators.]


Having obtained a sufficient number of persons willing to serve as Sub-enumerators in his District, and having satisfied himself as to their fitness by making the requisite inquiries respecting them, the Enumerator must prepare in duplicate, on the form headed "Enumerator's Schedule B", a list of Sub-Enumerators, one copy to be submitted to the Governor in Council for approval, and the other to be returned to the Enumerator with the notification of such approval, or with such other minutes as may be necessary. [List of Sub-enumerators to be forwarded.]


In order to place Enumerators in a position to engage competent persons to act as Sub-enumerators, the Government has sanctioned their employment within the following scale :— When acting on horseback, not exceeding £1 per diem ; when acting on foot, not exceeding 10s. per diem. These, it will be observed, are the maximum rates ; it is not anticipated, however, that it will be necessary to give the full amount except in specially situated districts. [Rate of Payment to Sub-enumerators.]

The Enumerator will therefore bear in mind that, should the services of suitable persons be obtainable at, and in his opinion be adequately remunerated with, a less sum, it is his duty to economise the funds voted for the Census as much as possible.



Having compiled with the requirements of the Census Act, so far as the sub-division of his district and the selection of Sub-enumerators is concerned, and having performed the duties appertaining thereto in accordance with the foregoing instructions, the Enumerator will ascertain that all his Sub-enumerators understand their duties and how the business of enumeration is to be performed, affording them all requisite information and explanation. [Sub-enumerators' duties to be explained.]


The Enumerator must take care that each person accepting the office of Sub-enumerator makes, before a Justice of the Peace, the declaration required by Section 8 and Schedule (2) of the Census Act, for which purpose forms are supplied. These documents must be forwarded to this office. [Declaration to be subscribed by Sub-enumerators.]


The Enumerator must also make known to all those he appoints that no person employed on the Census will be entitled to payment unless he has faithfully performed his duties. [Payment contingent upon work being well done.]


As a security against misunderstanding, the Enumerator will, after his arrangements as detailed in "Schedule A" have been approved, give to each Sub-enumerator one of the forms of "Sub-enumerator's Appointment" duly filled up and signed by himself, and after inserting the same particulars in the form "Sub-enumerator's Acceptance of Office," he will require the Sub-enumerator to sign it. The Enumerator must take care that the times and rates of payment entered in these forms agree exactly with those embodied in "Schedule A," and will also be sure to make each Sub-enumerator aware that he can only obtain the number of days' pay arranged to be allowed unless some unforeseen circumstance should occur which may justify an additional allowance. The forms "Sub-enumerator's Acceptance of Office" the Enumerator will retain until the whole of the work has been completed and the Sub-enumerators paid. [Agreements with Sub-enumerators.]


The Enumerator will also explain to the Sub-enumerators that no extra time can be allowed for making up their books, as that duty is supposed to be performed in the evening, after the work of collecting is over for the day. [Book to be written up in the evening.]


Should the Enumerator deem it advisable for any reason to remove a Sub-enumerator after his appointment, or should any Sub-enumerator be incapacitated from acting, the Enumerator must at once appoint another to the vacancy and report the same for the approval of the Governor in Council. [Removal, &c., of Sub-enumerators.]


The Enumerator must deliver to each Sub-enumerator as many Householders' Schedules as there are dwellings in his Sub-district, together with some spare ones, and cause him to leave, on Saturday, the 30th March, or on such other of the previous ten days ending on that day as may be deemed expedient, one of those Schedules for every household. He will also supply him with as many of the other Schedules as may be necessary, and with a copy of the "Instructions to Sub-enumerators," and one or more of the Sub-enumerator's books. [Forms to be given to Sub-enumerators.]


The Sub-enumerators are required by Section 12 of the Census Act, 1901, to deliver the Schedules to their Enumerators within 3 days after they have completed the collection, and it will be the duty of the Enumerator to see that this direction is carried out. [Returns from Sub-enumerators.]


The Enumerator must examine separately the Householders' and other Schedules, and see that they are properly filled in, and in case of mistakes or omissions of any kind, must insist on their being rectified. He must see that in each Sub-enumerator's book the Census Sub-divisions, &c. are correctly noted, and that the book is accurately made up. As the Enumerator has the selection of his Sub-enumerators, he is responsible for their being competent to perform their work properly, and must supply all deficiencies. [Sub-enumerators' work to be checked.]


The Enumerator must make out a summary of the returns given in by his Sub-enumerators on the form headed "Enumerator's Schedule C," and supply the other information required to be entered in that document. Five days are allowed by Section 13 of "The Census Act" for this purpose, but if the Sub-enumerators do their work properly, and see that none of the particulars required are omitted or misstated, a much shorter time should be sufficient. ["Enumerator's Schedule C"]


In all cases where the Enumerator has reason to suppose that travelers or others have c&ed out in any Sub-district on the night of the 31st March, and has received no return respecting them, he must be particular to inquire strictly into the matter. He must also examine carefully the returns of travelers, &c. sent in by the different Sub-enumerators, and if he has reason to believe that all have not been taken, he must forward his estimate of the omissions, with the data on which it is founded. [Travellers.]


The Enumerator is expected to see that each Sub-enumerator duly accounts for all the schedules he receives, and returns those which are not required. [Schedules to be accounted for.]


The Enumerator must carefully attend to the requirements contained in the thirteenth section of the Census Act, respecting the time and mode of transmitting the schedules and other documents, taking care that every parcel has clearly recorded on it the name of his own district, and the several numbers of the Census Subdivisions to which it belongs, and is well and securely made up, and in such sized parcels as the Postmaster of the district may deem expedient. [Section 13 of Census Act.]


It will also be his duty to certify to the correctness of all claims for payment made by those employed under him, and to forward the same to the Superintendent of the Census. [Payment of Sub-enumerators.]


Should the Enumerator be prevented by sudden illness or other unavoidable cause from carrying out the task entrusted to him, he will communicate the fact to the Superintendent of Census without delay ; but should there not be sufficient time to appoint a successor, he will at once depute a person to act for him, subject to the subsequent approval of the Governor in Council. [Sudden Illness, &c., of Enumerators.]


All communications on the subject of the Census are to be addressed to "The Superintendent of the Census, Hobart," and are to be marked on the outside with the word "Census," in accordance with the sixteenth action of the Act, which provides that communications so made shall be free of postage. [Communications.]



Duties prior to distribution of Householders' Schedules.


EACH Sub-enumerator after his appointment must attend upon his Enumerator for the purpose of receiving instructions, and for the purpose of conferring with other Sub-enumerators with the view of settling any points which may cause doubts as regards the exact limits of their respective Sub-district boundaries as laid down on the charts prepared for their guidance. [Study of boundaries of Districts.]


Each Sub-enumerator's Sub-district may contain one or more Census Sub-divisions, each of which has defined limits indicated by coloured lines, and are each distinguished on the chart by a number within a conspicuous blue circle ; thus—


It is of the greatest importance that each Sub-enumerator should at the outset make himself thoroughly familiar with the exact limits of each and all of the Census Sub-divisions forming his Sub-district. Should doubts arise in his mind with respect to any part of his District, he must at once discuss and settle them with his Enumerator or with the Sub-enumerators of the divisions adjoining his own, so that he may neither omit any portion of his own Sub-district no enter into that of any other Sub-enumerator. [Doubts as to boundaries to be settled by conferring with Enumerator or with other Sub-enumerators.]


The next duty of the Sub-enumerator is to read and thoroughly master the Instructions printed upon the Householder's Schedule. The ex&les given in Model Schedules at the back of each form will at once convey to him the greater part of the necessary guidance as to the manner in which particulars under each head are to be recorded. A little attention will suffice to make him familiar with the various signs and abbreviations and their signification. [Instructions on back of Householder's Schedule to be read and thoroughly mastered.]


Be careful to note any part of the printed Instructions that may appear to lack clearness, and obtain the Enumerator's interpretation upon it. [Consult Enumerator on doubtful points.]


Having mastered all the Instructions by such study, the Sub-enumerator will now be prepared to check the accuracy of the entries made subsequently by each Householder. [Knowledge of instructions must be sufficient to check accuracy of entries.]


In addition to the Instructions contained in Householder's Schedule, the Sub-enumerator should also carefully read those Sections of the Act describing his duty and obligations, as well as the Regulations issued by the Governor in Council under Section 24, copies of which are given herewith. [Also read Regulations and Sections of Act defining duties.]

Distribution of Schedules.


At the proper time each Sub-enumerator will be supplied with a sufficient number of blank Householders' Schedules for distribution within the various Census Sub-divisions comprising his special sub-district ; that is to say, one Schedule for each distinct family. [Householder's Schedule.]


On receipt of the supply of Schedules the Sub-enumerators, in the view of being able to identify and secure their collection within the proper Census Sub-division, shall insert the number of such Sub-division in place set apart in top right corner of each form, and shall at once proceed to number each Schedule in consecutive order, commencing with No.1. A space is set apart for thisSchedule numberat the top (right corner) of each form. This series of Schedules so numbered is afterwards referred to as "The Original Series." [Schedulers to be numbered consecutively before distribution.]


Within ten days preceding the night of the Census, the Sub-enumerator is to leave at every dwelling-house in his sub-district one or more of the previously numbered Householders' Schedules, according to the number of separate families residing in such dwelling ; and at the residence of the occupier, owner, or manager of every occupied allotment of land, and at every school, lodging-house, hotel, or establishment where people are domiciled. On leaving these Schedules he should state that they will be called for on Monday, 1st April, or as soon thereafter as possible ; and should specially inform masters or persons in charge of hotels, lodging-houses, and the like that they will be required to give full particulars, as set forth in Schedule, respecting every person who abode in their houses on the night of the 31st March. [Distribution of Schedules.]


It is further directed that the Schedules be distributed in the order of their arranged consecutive numbers, noting in Sub-enumerator's pocket memorandum-book the number of Schedule and such particulars as will enable Sub-enumerator afterwards to identify the dwelling—such asstreet, number, name of house, or nameof occupier. [Schedules to be distributed in the order of their consecutive numbers.]


Where there is more than oneCensus Sub-divisionwithin the Sub-enumerator's sub-district, it is necessary that the distribution within any one of these Census Sub-divisions should be completed before commencing with the next ; and in order that each Schedule afterwards may be identified with the place or locality, it is desirable before setting out each day to fill in theCensus Sub-division number,as indicated on the chart in the place reserved for that number on the top right-hand corner of the Schedule, at the same time taking due care to fill in, rather under than over, the number of Schedules that may be safely expected to suffice for distribution within that sub-division during the day. [Distribution in one Census Sub-division to be completed before commencing the next.]


A reserve of blank forms may be taken to supply deficiencies, and these may have theCensus Sub-division numberwritten in by indelible-ink pencils at the moment of distribution. [Census Sub-division number also to be written in Schedule prior to distribution.]


Great care must be exercised in seeing that this important sub-division number is written on every form before delivery, as upon it depends the whole of the ultimate tabulation of particulars as regards locality. [Care to be taken in inserting Sub-division number.]


Before setting out in each day it is recommended that the Sub-enumerator should carefully study the course he should take in order that the distribution should be made in such a systematic way as shall ensure the complete distribution in any one locality without unnecessarily going over the same ground a second time. At the close of each day make a note of the course thus taken, for the purpose of ensuring that the same course (as nearly as possible) may be taken when the final collection of Schedules is undertaken. [The day's course to be carefully studied before starting, and a note of the same recorded at close of day.]


A collector should never leave any one locality, or, if in a city, a block or square, without satisfying himself by enquiry or otherwise that no dwelling-place, temporary or permanent, has been overlooked. [Care to be taken that no dwelling-place is overlooked.]


Any township, goldfield, or similar locality having 100, or more, inhabitants must be taken separately, and have a separate Sub-division number. [Towns, &c., with over 100 inhabitants.]

Collection of Schedules.


On the morning of the 1st April each Sub-enumerator, taking with him a supply of blank forms for the purpose of supplying discovered omissions or to use in place of those lost or injured, also a bottle of ink and some pens, will proceed to revisit every dwelling or place at which he has left the Schedule in the various Census Sub-division of the Sub-district assigned to him, and must continue his work of collection on the following day or days until the whole of the schedules left have been recovered. [Collection of Schedules.]


In doing so he must carefully consult his notes of the course he had pursued in their distribution, and adopt exactly the same course as far as possible in the process of collection. By observing this method he will secure two very important ends. In the first place, the original care bestowed in selecting the course which ensures completeness with the least amount of traveling will also be of similar advantage in their collection ; and, in the second place, seeing that the Schedules have been issued in the order of theirconsecutiveorrunning numbers,the collection by the same route ensures that each Schedule will be recovered in the same consecutive order of their running numbers. The occurrence of abreakor amissing numberin collecting will at once suggest to the Collector that some dwelling has been missedbefore leaving the spot or locality,and thus be a guarantee of completeness of collection as well as a great saving of labour and time. [Notes of the course of distribution to be consulted and followed.]


Where a fresh form is substituted for a lost or injured one, care must be taken to write "substituted form" at the head, and if satisfied of correctness, write in the proper place theSchedule Numberof the original form lost or injured. [Substituted forms.]


Where, from omission in original distribution, fresh Schedules are issued out of the regular course or order of running numbers, they should form a separate series of consecutive numbers distinguished by the letter A.,—thus, A1, A2, A3, and so on. The latter series are afterwards to follow the original series in the Sub-enumerator's Compilation Book belonging to the same Census Sub-division group. [Schedules issued out of regular course to supply omissions, &c., to be distinguished by the letter A.]

Examining and Checking the Schedules.


On the production of the Schedule when asked for at each dwelling, it must be carefully examined, in order to ascertain before leaving that it contains all the particulars required, and, if not, he must then endeavour to obtain such further information as is necessary. He must be careful to ask if all the persons entered on the Householder's Schedule on the night of the 31st March slept or dwelt in the house, or in any part thereof which is occupied by the person making the return ; also whether any members of the family who were absent on that night are included, and, if so, he must strike them out, initialing such alteration, and writing the word "absent" in the margin. [Schedules to be examined and defects or omissions made good.]


He should likewise enquire if any person was temporarily absent on the night of the 31st March, and whether there is reason to suppose—in consequence of such person being in the bush traveling on that night, or on account of his being boating, fishing, on watch, working in a mine or elsewhere—he may not have been recorded. If this should turn out to be case, the Sub-enumerator should make an entry on a separate Householder's Schedule of such particulars as would have been furnished respecting such person had he been at home, so far as they can be ascertained, with a note stating the cause of absence, &c. [Inmate absent temporarily.]

If any person enumerated in the column is married, whose wife or husband, as the case may be, is either absent from the colony or is residing at the time in some other dwelling, where he or she is likely to be returned in a separate Schedule—in this case, such husband or wife must state after their name, husband or wife "absent," as the case may be.


All such Special Schedules are to be numbered with an independent series of consecutive or running numbers, to be distinguished by the letter B—thus, B1, B2, B3, and so on. This third or B series are afterwards to follow the series A in the Sub-enumerator's CompilationBook before the closeof the entries of the sameCensus Sub-division group, and before the commencement of the first series in thenext independent Census Subdivision group. [Special Schedules for absent persons to be distinguished by the letter B.]


The Sub-enumerator is also required to fill one or more Schedules with particulars respecting any travelers or persons he may find c&ing out or sleeping under drays, &c., on the Census night. He should also make enquiry and furnish an estimate respecting the number, sex, &c., of any such persons he may ascertain were in any Census Sub-division of his Sub-district on that night, but whom he did not succeed in meeting with. Such Schedules to be classed and numbered consecutively with the B series of the particular Census Sub-division. [Travellers.]


He must see whether a Householder's Schedule is a return for the whole house, or for a part of it only, and in case the house is occupied by more than one family, he must obtain returns for the other part or parts of it upon separate Schedules. When two or more Householders' Schedules are used for a house the Sub-enumerator must pin them together at the upper left-hand corner, and must take care that the description of the house, &c., is entered on the outside Schedule only, striking it out from all the others and inserting instead the words "Second Schedule," "Third Schedule," in the space for the particulars of "dwelling." In making this alteration he must be sure that he does not omit to record upon the first Schedule the full number of rooms contained in the house. [House occupied by several families.]


Whenever the Sub-enumerator is unable to obtain back any of the Schedules he deposited by reason of their being defaced or lost, he must put the requisite questions to the inmates, and insert the information on one of the spare Schedules he takes with him from the answers given. Wherever it can be done without inconvenience or much delay, he should ask to see the master or mistress of the house or head of the family, or the occupier, teacher, manager, or other person in charge of the farm, school, or other establishment, and civilly elicit information accordingly. In the case of the Householders' Schedules, the substituted form may be marked with the same number as the original one, with the addition of the word "substituted" after such number. [Schedule defaced or lost.]


Should persons refuse to make written returns, or to answer such questions as the Sub-enumerator is authorized to put, he may remind them of the penalty to which they are rendering themselves liable, and point out the caution at the head of the Schedules. He may also warn persons whom he may suspect of giving false information of the penalty they are incurring by so doing. Should they still persist in refusing to supply information, or in supplying it untruly, he must report the matter to his Enumerator, in order that the requisite steps may be taken to enforce compliance with the law. [Refusal to supply information.]


If a house in which someone resides is found locked up, a Householder's Schedule must be placed under the door or left with a neighbour. If, on returning for the Schedules, the Sub-enumerator should again find the house empty, and the papers not be left out for him, he must call again and endeavour to meet with the occupier. Should he be unable to do so after several attempts, he should fill Schedules from information obtained from one of the neighbours or some other person acquainted with the inmates, in which case the house may be considered as properly visited. He must, however, take care that no persons are recorded in this manner who did not actually abide in the house on the Census night ; a similar course is to be adopted by the Sub-enumerator in the event of his being unable to meet with the manager or other person capable of giving exact information at a farm, school, factory, &c. These Schedules are also to be marked on top with the word "substituted," and must bear the original number of the missing form. [Householder absent.]


The Sub-enumerator must not omit to enter persons on the Householders' Schedules because he cannot obtain all the information respecting them. If, for ex&le, he can learn no more than that a person who has since gone away, and whose name is unknown, slept in a house or c&ed out in a certain place on the night of the 31st March, he must fill a Schedule for such person, writing "not known" in the column where the name should be, always stating the sex, and adding such other particulars of age, &c., as can be ascertained or estimated. This Schedule must bear the number of the original form if not recovered. If the form was issued originally, the new form must be classed and numbered consecutively with the A series. [Failure to obtain full information.]


The descriptions of all houses intended for residences, which may be uninhabited or in course of erection at the date of taking the Census, are to be entered on Householders' Schedules in the proper column, with the word "uninhabited," or "being built," as the case may be, added. Such Schedules are to be classed and numbered with the A series and signed by the Sub-enumerator. No account is to be taken of buildings, such as churches, stores, &c., in which nobody sleeps, and which are not used not intended to be used as dwellings. [Uninhabited and unfinished houses.]


In the case of public offices, banks, stores, &c., in which a person or family resides in order to take care of the premises, the number of rooms occupied by such person or family is to be given only, and not the whole number in the building. Unless some one sleeps therein, shops, bathrooms, pantries, and outhouses are not to be considered as rooms. [Public officers, banks, &c.]


He will likewise be particular to see that the number and sex of persons employed by others in agricultural, pastoral, mining, and manufacturing pursuits are duly noted after the occupations of their employers, as directed in the Instructions printed on the back of the House-holder's Schedule. [Hands employed.]


The Householders' Schedules of public institutions, such as hospitals, gaols, and the like, are to be distinctly marked as such at the top. The Schedules of licensed public-houses are also to be marked at the top with the word "hotel." [Public institutions.]

Compilation of Particulars of Householders' Schedules.


Each Sub-enumerator is also supplied with a book, called theSub-enumerator's Compilation Book, in which is recorded at the close of each day's collection the various particulars indicated by the headings, and for additional guidance in this matter, a model form of compilation is given in the beginning of each book, showing the mode of grouping all the Schedules for each Sub-division separately and in the order of their consecutives numbers. [Compilation of Schedules.]


Before entering the Schedules of each Census Sub-division, they must be carefully examined and arranged in the order of the sequence of their Schedule numbers. If the order of their original distribution as directed be preserved in their collection, this arrangement will be greatly facilitated. Should this examination disclose any defects or omissions, he must with all promptitude endeavour to make them good. [Schedules to be arranged in order of sequence.]


The Schedules of each separateCensus Sub-divisionbeing made complete, and arranged in the manner described, must now be securely fastened together at the top left-hand corner, together with theIndex-card(D). TheIndex-cardmust also be filled up correctly as regards the names of the Districts, &c. [Schedules for each separate Census Sub-division to be securely fastened together.]


Care must be taken that the whole of the Schedules of one Census Sub-division is included and a total made before commencing the entry of the next Census Sub-division Schedules. Should unforeseen circumstances arise which require the entry of another Census Sub-division before the collection of the Schedules of the previous Sub-division have been completed, a sufficient space must be left to receive the missing Schedules, so as to enable them to be added together in their proper place. [Each Census Sub-division to be kept district.]


UninhabitedCensus Sub-divisionsmust also be recorded in final Summary, with the word "uninhabited" written in space for details. [Uninhabited Census Sub-divisions to be noted.]


When all the Schedules have been entered up and the totals obtained as in model form, thetotals of Census Sub-divisionsshould then be summarized in the place set apart for this purpose at the end of the Compilation Book. [Summary of Census Sub-division.]

Final transmission of all Schedules, Books, Forms, &c., to Enumerator.


Having certified to the correctness of entries in the form provided for that purpose at the end of Sub-enumerator's Compilation Book, the securely-fastened Schedules, together with all Books, Forms, &c., must be made up into convenient parcels and delivered to the Enumerator on or before the 3rd April.


Where exceptional circumstances make it impossible to secure the completion and delivery within this time, special arrangements for extension must be made beforehand with the Enumerator

[Transmission of completed Schedule Books, &c. to Enumerator.]


The Schedules not to be folded where possible, but are to be laid open upon one another in their proper order ; if unavoidable, fold once only in the middle. [Folding Schedules.]


MODEL showing the mode of Entering, Grouping, and Summarising the Particulars contained in the Householders' Schedules., CENSUS SUB-DIVISION No.6.
Schedule No.Town, Village, or Locality, and Street (if any).Total No. of Persons in each Schedule.Number of Chinese and Half-caste Aborigines, Tasmania, in previous two columns.Dwelling.Remarks.
M.F.Chinese.H.C. Tas.Inhabited.Uninhabited.Being built.
1Invermay Main Road321
2Invermay Main Road121Husband and son absent, fishing.
3Invermay Main Road241
4Invermay Main Road131Son absent, travelling in bush.
5Invermay Main Road4611Hotel.
6Invermay Main Road221
7Invermay Main Road321
8Invermay Main Road341
9Invermay Main Road111
10Invermay Grey-street1
11Invermay Grey-street3411
12Invermay Grey-street221
13Invermay Grey-streetMissing Schedule—cannot be accounted for.
14Invermay Grey-street0151Boarding-school.
A 1Invermay Bath-street321
A 2Invermay Bath-street1
A 3Invermay Bath-street121
B 1Invermay Bath-street1Fishing.
B 2Invermay Bath-street2Fishing.
B 3Invermay Bath-street1Travelling in bush.
(20)Total Census Sub-Division No. 63351111411
1Mowbray Village231
2Mowbray Village321
3Mowbray Village421
4Mowbray Village111
5Mowbray Village211
(5)Carried forward1295
CENSUS SUB-DIVISI0N No. 7—continued.
Schedule No.Town, Village, or Locality, and Street (if any).Total No. of Persons in each Schedule.Number of Chinese and Half-caste Aborigines, Tasmania, in previous two columns.Dwelling.Remarks.
M.F.Chinese.H.C. Tas.Inhabited.Uninhabited.Being built.
5Brought forward.1295
6Mowbray Village131Husband absent on Police duty.
7Mowbray Village231
8Mowbray Village141
9Mowbray Village331
10Mowbray Village251
11Mowbray Village111
12Mowbray Village241
13Mowbray Village131
14Mowbray Village321
15Mowbray Village371Hotel.
16Mowbray Village121
17Mowbray Village321
A 1Mowbray Village1
B 1Mowbray Village1Policeman, night duty.
B 2Mowbray Village2C&ed under dray.
(20)Total Census Sub-Division No. 73848171
Nil.Not inhabited.
Page.Census Sub-division.Number of Schedules.Total Population.Number of Chinese.Number of Tasmanian Aboriginal H.C.Number of Dwellings.
M.F.TOTAL.M.F.M.F.Inhabited.Uninhabited.Being built.TOTAL.
Total of Sub-Enumerator's Sub-district.40719917011312134




THE cards are of two colors, white and pink. The white alone are to be used for males ; the pink alone are to be used for females.


These cards, white and pink, are divided into two sub-groups, thus :—

Plain cards.


White, without blue bar, alone to be used for all males who earn their own living, and who are not dependent upon relatives or upon public or private support. Ex&les E, A, W.


Pink, without blue bar, alone to be used for all females who earn their own living, and who are not dependent upon relatives or upon public or private support. Ex&les E, A, W

Barred cards.


White, with blue bar, alone to be used for all males who do not earn their own livelihood, or who depend upon relatives, upon the state, or upon public or private support.

Ex&le, male infant, son or other male relative at school ; dependent male, or dependent relative, &c. ; male inmates of gaols, charitable institutions, asylums, &c.


Pink, with blue bar, alone to be used for all females who do not earn their own livelihood, or who are mainly engaged in the domestic duties of the household for which no extra remuneration is paid, or who depend upon relatives, upon the state, or upon public or private support.

Ex&les, female infant—daughter, or other female relative, or dependent at school ; female inmates of gaols, charitable institutions, asylums, &c.

II. (A.)Wife, Daughter, Son, or Relative assisting Head of Family in his or her business occupation.

This distinction can only apply to those relatives who are expressly stated as engaged as assisting the head of the family in his business, but who do not receive definite wages or salary. In such cases the information entered in "Occupier" must include the occupation of the head of the family ; thus—

W.A. Innkeeper (A) indicates wife assisting innkeeper.

S.A. Agricultural farmer (A) indicates son assisting agricultural farmer.

R.A. Pastoral farm (A) relative assisting on pastoral farm.

D.D. Where a schedule contains no apparent breadwinner the mother, senior, or head of other dependants returned under domestic duties, housekeeper, &c., must not be so classed, but referred to Occupation indefinite. Pink card without blue bar ; and—

If in house under £30 a year, Class (W.)

If in house over £30 a year, Class (O.)

III.Dependants, Male and Female.

Be careful in filling in the Occupation space to specify the condition or occupation of each dependent person ; thus—

(a) Pink Cards with Blue Bar.

  1. Wife (D.D.) indicates wife engaged in domestic duties.

  2. Daughter (D.D.) indicates daughter engaged in domestic duties.

  3. (D.S.) indicates daughter at school.

  4. (D.U.) indicates daughter at university.

  5. (D.R.) indicates infant, or those who have no occupation.

  6. Niece, or other female relative or female dependant to be similarly classified.

  7. Female visitor, if occupation not stated, to be entered as dependant ; thus—Visitor (D.R.)

(b) White Cards with Blue Bar.

  1. Son (D.S.) Indicates Son at School.

  2. Son (D.U.) Indicates Son at University.

  3. Son (D.R.) Indicates Infant or those who have no occupation.

  4. Nephew or other Male relative or Male dependant to be similarly classified.

IV. B. "Male Visitors" whose occupation is not defined not to be included as dependants if they are over 15 years of age. All the former must be entered upon White card without blue bar, thus : [Occup., visitor—(Indef.)]


Be careful to state fully the nature of the specific kind of occupation.—e.g., do not write Carpenter for Ship Carpenter.


In all cases where indefinite terms are given—such as Clerk, Book-keeper, Accountant, Foreman, Apprentice, Labourer, Assistant Shopman, Carrier, Engine-driver, and such like—add, if possible, the nature of employer's business, thus :—


Where the description is defective, more definite information may sometimes be obtained by glancing at relation to head of family, or the prevailing industries carried on in the district where the person dwells.


Distinguish carefully Agricultural from Pastoral Farms where possible.



Should the column be left blank in the case of persons who inhabit costly dwellings, look to the signature, and if it appears to be written by one who gives indication of fair education, enter all persons above 5 as R.W.

In every case enter R.W. against any head who appears to have signed the foot Schedule in his own hand writing


The following abbreviations may be used on Cards:—


For all other places write the name of Country more fully.


VIII.Checking Cards.


All Male Cards for any one sub-division must be tied up separately. A "tab card" stating the census sub-division, and the number of Males (include Breadwinners and Dependants) must be attached. The "tab card" to be initialled by the person who enters up the tickets. Prove that the number of card agrees with that on the Index Card on Schedules of the particular Division.


Female Cards to be similarly tied up, indicated, and proved.


All Cards to be carefully locked away each night in cases.


A fine of 20 Cards will be inflicted for—

  1. Cards indistinctly written.

  2. For writing particulars on a Card of the wrong color or kind.

  3. For missing any person in any Schedule.

  4. For entering the same person twice.

  5. For omitting any of the specific categories—indicated by the abbreviations on Cards—in regard to information contained in respect of the person on Schedule.
















I. Population—General Summary

II. Dwellings

III. Inhabitants and Dwellings on 31st March, 1901

IV. Proportion of Sexes, Density of Population, and Houses, 1841-1901

V. Increase of Population, 1841-1901

VI. Increase or Decrease of Population by Electoral Districts and Divisions, 1857-1901

VII. Population and Dwellings—Summaries at Successive Census Periods, 1841-1901

VIII. Dwellings at Successive Census Periods (1841-1901)

IX. Habitations and Land, 31st March, 1901—Summary by Electoral Districts and Divisions

X. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, by Electoral Districts and Divisions

XI. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, by Municipal Districts and Divisions

XII. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, by Registration Districts and Divisions

XIII. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, by Counties

XIV. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, by Various Census Sub-districts (Road Districts, &c.)

XV. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, in Cities, Towns, and Villages

XVI. Electoral Representation in Census Years, 1891-1901

XVII. Births, Deaths, Migration, 1891-1901

XVIII. Inmates of Establishments, Government and otherwise, 31st March, 1901

XIX. Shipping Population, 31st March, 1901

XX. Area, Density, and Extent of Population in Electoral Districts

XXI. Area, Density, and Extent of Population in Registration Districts


I. Numbers at, above, and under each Year of Age, 1901

II. Numbers at Quinquennial and other Age Periods, 1901

III. Numbers at (Comparative Numerical), Census, 1870, 1881, 1891, 1901

IV. Numbers (Centesimal) Census, 1870, 1881, 1891, 1901

V. Numerical and Centesimal Increase or Decrease at each Age Period for successive Censuses

VI. Proportion of Sexes at each Age Period, 1861, 1870, 1881, 1891, and 1901

VII. Number of Females to 100 Males at each Age Period, 1861, 1870, 1881, 1891, and 1901

VIII. Mean Age of Population, 1881, 1891 and 1901

IX. Mean Ages at Decennial Periods, 1901

X. Ages at Quinquennial and other Age Periods for the Hobart Registration Districts, including Hobart City and Hobart Suburbs, 1901

XI. Ages at Quinquennial and other Age Periods for the Launceston Registration District, including Launceston City and Launceston Suburbs, 1901

XII. Ages at Quinquennial and other Age Periods for the Rural Registration Districts, 1901

XIII. Summary by Electoral Districts at Single Age Periods 1-21, Quinquennial Periods 21 and over


I. Return showing Married and Single at the last Eight Censuses

II. Return showing Ages and Conjugal Condition, also Proportions per 100

III. Return showing Proportion per 1000 of Persons married at different Age Periods, also Proportion to Total Population of Marriageable Age

IV. Return showing Number of Unmarried Persons, Males and Females, Husbands and Wives, Widowers and Widows, with Proportions per cent

V. Return showing Bachelors and Spinsters, Husbands and Wives, the Proportions per cent., and the Numbers in excess in the case of each Sex

VI. Return showing Conjugal Condition of Males and Females at different Ages in each District

VII. Return showing the Number, Birth-places, Religions, and Occupations of Divorced Persons

VIII. Return showing the Number of Families and Number of Husbands and Wives absent

IX., X., XI., XII. Returns showing respective Ages of Husbands and Wives


I. Return showing Persons born in different Countries at the last Three Censuses

II. Return showing Persons born in different Countries, Census 1901

III. Return showing Persons born in different Countries, Grouped, but not specified

IV. Return showing Numbers and Proportions of Persons, Males and Females, also the Number and Proportion of Adults, born in different Countries

V. Return showing Birth-places of Persons, Males and Females, in Urban and Rural Districts, (Numerical)

VI. Return showing Birth-places of Persons, Males and Females, in Urban and Rural Districts, (Centesimal)

VII. Return showing Birth-place and Education in respect of all Persons three years of age and over

VIII. Return showing Birth-places and Conjugal Conditions

IX. Return showing Birth-places of Persons, Males and Females, in the Several Electoral Districts

X. Return showing Number of Persons of British Parentage Naturalised or not stated, Census, 1901

XI. Return showing the length of Residence in the State of all those born outside the State


I. Return showing Proportion of all Persons specified as regards Education relative to the Total Numbers specified under the principal Age-groups at the last Five Census Periods

II. Return showing Number and Proportion of all Persons under Education and Age-groups

III. Return showing Number in Urban and Rural Districts at the last Two Censuses under Education and Age-groups

IV. Return showing Proportion of Persons in Urban and Rural Districts at the last Two Censuses under Education and Age-groups

V. Return of Persons and Education in each Electoral District (Numerical)

VI. Return of Persons and Education in each Electoral District, (Centesimal)

VII. Return showing for each Electoral District and for Urban and Rural Districts the Proportion of Persons who could read, &c., in the order of the highest results ; the Proportion of all ages over 7 years and over 21 years ; also the Number of State Schools and their Number relative to Area and Population

VIII. Return showing the Education at different Ages in Electoral Districts

IX. Return showing the Number and Education of Children at Ages 3-15 (Numerical and Centesimal)

X. Return showing the Education of Children at Ages (3-15) in Urban and Rural Districts

XI. Return showing the Education of Children (5-15) of various Religious Denominations

XII. Return showing the Number of Children (3-15) receiving Instruction at School or at Home, and Proportion to the whole Population between 3 and 15 years of Age

XIII. Return of the Proportion of Children (3-15) receiving Secular Instruction

XIV. Return under Age-groups of the Number and proportion of Children receiving Instruction, and the Number and Proportion of the Residue, in Urban, Rural, and Electoral Districts

XV. Return of the Number of Children (3-21) stated as attending different Schools and receiving, Instruction at Home

XVI. Return of the Number of Children (3-21) stated as attending different Schools and receiving, Instruction at Home, in Urban, Rural, and Electoral Districts

XVII. Return of the Number of Children (3-21) stated as attending different Schools and receiving, Instruction at Home, attending State Schools, in Urban, Rural, and Electoral Districts

XVIII. Return of the Number of Children (3-21) stated as attending different Schools and receiving, Instruction at Home, Private Schools, in Urban, Rural, and Electoral Districts

XIX. Return of the Number of Children (3-21) stated as attending different Schools and receiving, Instruction at Home, reciving Instruction at Home, in Urban, Rural, and Electoral Districts

XX. Return showing the Number of Children (3-14) of whom there is no record as to receiving Instruction either at School or at Home, in Urban, Rural, and Electoral Districts

XXI. Return showing the Number of Persons between the Ages of 3 and 21, stated as attending different Schools and reciving Instruction at Home, in each Electoral District

XXII. Return showing the degrees of Primary Instruction possessed by Children between 5 and 15 years of Age of each Religious Denomination

XXIII. Return showing the Number of Persons of higher Education, giving the various Degrees

XXIV. Return showing the degree of Education of Persons of all Ages, born in Tasmania, in each Electoral District

XXV. Return showing the degree of Education of Persons of all Ages, born in Tasmania, in each Age

XXVI. Return showing the degree of Education of Persons of all Ages, born in Tasmania, in all Ages, born in the States of New South Wales, Victoria, S. Australia, Queensland, W. Australia, and Colony of New Zealand, resident in Tasmania, in each Electoral District

XXVII. Return showing, in each Electoral District, the Degree of Education possessed by Persons of All Ages resident in the State of Tasmania, and born in the State of Victoria

XXVIII. Return showing, in each Electoral District, the Degree of Education possessed by Persons of All Ages resident in the State of Tasmania, and born in the New South Wales

XXIX. Return showing, in each Electoral District, the Degree of Education possessed by Persons of All Ages resident in the State of Tasmania, and born in the South Australia

XXX. Return showing, in each Electoral District, the Degree of Education possessed by Persons of All Ages resident in the State of Tasmania, and born in the Queensland

XXXI. Return showing, in each Electoral District, the Degree of Education possessed by Persons of All Ages resident in the State of Tasmania, and born in the Western Australia

XXXII. Return showing, in each Electoral District, the Degree of Education possessed by Persons of All Ages resident in the State of Tasmania, and born in the Australia, State undefined

XXXIII. Return showing, in each Electoral District, the Degree of Education possessed by Persons of All Ages resident in the State of Tasmania, and born in the Colony, New Zealand


I. Showing the Number of Sick and Infirm, and Proportion per 10,000 of Living Population, at last Two Censuses, under each description of Infirmity

II. Showing the Number of Persons of the Living Population under each description of Infirmity at each Quinquennial Period of Age, Census 1901(Numerical)

III. Showing the Number of Persons of the Living Population under each description of Infirmity at each Quinquennial Period of Age, Census 1901 (Centesimal)

IV. Showing the Number of Persons of the Living Population under each description of Infirmity at each Quinquennial Period of Age, Census 1901(Numerical), Males

V. Showing the Number of Persons of the Living Population under each description of Infirmity at each Quinquennial Period of Age, Census 1901(Centesimal), Males

VI. Showing the Number of Persons of the Living Population under each description of Infirmity at each Quinquennial Period of Age, Census 1901(Numerical), Females

VII. Showing the Number of Persons of the Living Population under each description of Infirmity at each Quinquennial Period of Age, Census 1901(Centesimal), Females

VIII. Showing the Number and Proportion in every 10,000 living under each description of Infirmity in Urban and Rural Districts

IX. Showing the Number and Proportion in every 10,000 living under each description of Infirmity in respect to Breadwinners and Dependants under various Classes of Occupations

X. Showing the Number of Males and Females under each description of Infirmity in each Electoral District

XI. Showing at various periods of Age the Number of Males and Females under each description of Infirmity

XII. Showing the Number and Occupations of Males and Females under each description of Infirmity in the State


I. Return showing Number of Persons belonging to the Principal Religious Denominations in 1891 and 1901

II. Return showing Number of Persons belonging to the Principal Religious Denominations in 1870 and 1891 ; also absolute and relative Increase or Decrease

III. Return showing Relative Distribution of Religions in Urban and Rural Districts

IV. Return showing Percentage Proportion of Persons belonging to the different Religious Denominations at Censuses 1870, 1891, and 1901

V. Return showing the Analysis of Sects grouped but not specified in Tables III. and VI.

VI. Return showing the Religions of the People in the various Electoral Districts

VII. Return showing the Religion and Education under different Age-Groups

VIII. Return showing the Religion and Conjugal Condition of the People, Males and Females

IX. Return showing Religion and Conjugal Condition of the People (Numerical and Centesimal)

X. Return showing Ages, Religions, and Education of the People

XI. Return showing the Religions of the People, separately distinguishing the Chinese

XII. Return showing the Religions of the Chinese in the various Electoral Districts

XIII. Return showing the Religious of the Half-cast Chinese in the various Electoral Districts

XIV. Return showing the Religions of the Half-cast Tasmanian Aborigines in the various Electoral Districts

XV. Return showing the Religions of other Alien Races in the various Electoral Districts


I. Showing Occupations of all Persons, Males and Females under and over 20 years of age, divided into Breadwinners and Dependants, and in Eight Classes

II. Showing Occupations of all Persons, Males and Females under and over 20 years of age, divided into Breadwinners and Dependants, and in Eight Classes, Comparative Return 1891 and 1901

III. Showing the Numbers and Proportion per cent. of Persons, Males and Females in different Divisions, Classes, and Sub-Classes of Occupations

IV. Showing the Number and Proportion of Persons, Males and Females in the different Classes, Censuses 1891 and 1901, arranged comparatively ; also showing Increase or Decrease

V. Showing Persons, Males and Females belonging to 27 Orders of Occupations in Divisions and Classes ; also in Urban and Rural Districts (Numerical)

VI. Showing Persons, Males and Females belonging to 27 Orders of Occupations in Divisions and Classes ; also in Urban and Rural Districts (Centesimal)

VII. Showing the Number of Persons, Males and Females belonging to 110 district Sub-Orders of Occupations in Classes and Orders ; also in Urban and Rural Districts

VIII. Showing the Numbers and Proportion per cent. of Persons living under various Age-Groups in Divisions, Classes, and principal Sub-Classes

IX. Showing the Numbers and Proportion per cent. of Occupations, distinguishing Grades of Employer, Employed, &c., in Divisions, Classes, and principal Sub-Classes

X. Showing the Percentage of Breadwinners and Dependants in Urban, Rural, and Electoral Districts

XI. Showing the Numbers and Proportion of Persons, Males and Females belonging to the various Classes and Sub-Classes under various Grades and Age-Groups

XII. Showing the Number of Persons, Males and Females belonging to various Classes and Sub-Classes of Occupation in the State, Urban Districts, Rural Districts, and several Electoral Districts ; also Breadwinners and Dependants

XIII. Showing the Percentage Proportion of Breadwinners in Urban, Rural, and several Electoral Districts in Classes and Sub-Classes

XIV. Showing the system of Classification of the several Occupations in Classes, Sub-Classes, Orders, Sub-Orders, and Sub-Groups

XV. Showing the Number of Persons, Males and Females in Hobart and Launceston in Age Periods and Grades, and in Classes and Sub-Classes

XVI. Showing the Number of Persons, Males and Females in State, and in Hobart and Launceston, in Age Periods and Grades, and in Classes, Orders, and Sub-Orders

XVII. Showing the Number of Males of all Ages, and whether Employers, Employed, &c., in respect of each Specific Occupation

XVIII. Showing the Number of Females of all Ages, and whether Employers, Employed, &c., in respect of each Specific Occupation

XIX. Showing the Number of Persons, Males and Females in classified order of Occupation, together with Sub-Groups of Occupations of Males in each Electoral District

XX. Showing the Occupations of Females in each Electoral District in Sub-Groups

XXI. Showing in Alphabetical arrangement the Occupations of Males and Females under Age-Groups and Grades for each Specific Occupation

XXII. Showing Occupations of Male Inmates of Establishments

XXIII. Showing Occupations of Female Inmates of Establishments


Particulars as to Occupations and other information regarding Chinese, Half-caste Chinese, other Alien Races, and Half-caste Tasmanians



Date of Enumeration, 31st March, 1901.


I. Population—General Summary

II. Dwellings

III. Inhabitants and Dwellings on 31st March, 1901

IV. Proportion of Sexes, Density of Population, and Houses, 1841-1901

V. Increase of Population, 1841-1901

VI. Increase or Decrease of Population by Electoral Districts and Divisions, 1857-1901

VII. Population and Dwellings—Summaries at Successive Census Periods, 1841-1901

VIII. Dwellings at Successive Census Periods (1841-1901)

IX. Habitations and Land, 31st March, 1901—Summary by Electoral Districts and Divisions

X. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, by Electoral Districts and Divisions

XI. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, by Municipal Districts and Divisions

XII. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, by Registration Districts and Divisions

XIII. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, by Counties

XIV. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, by Various Census Sub-districts (Road Districts, &c.)

XV. Populations and Dwellings, 31st March, 1901, in Cities, Towns, and Villages

XVI. Electoral Representation in Census Years, 1891-1901

XVII. Births, Deaths, Migration, 1891-1901

XVIII. Inmates of Establishments, Government and otherwise, 31st March, 1901

XIX. Shipping Population, 31st March, 1901

XX. Area, Density, and Extent of Population in Electoral Districts

XXI. Area, Density, and Extent of Population in Registration Districts

(Plate I.,) As to Density see Report.

(Plate II,) As to Density see Report.

Population.—General Summary., TABLE 1.—Population of Tasmania and its Dependencies on 31st March, 1901.
Total Population enumerated172,47589,62482,851100.0051.9648.04
H.C. Chinese5449103
Other Alien Coloured Races602282
H. C. Aboriginals7978157
Dwellings.—General Summary., TABLE II.—Habitations in Tasmania on the 31st March, 1901.
Number of Dwellings.Numerical.Centesimal.
Classified according to Occupation.
Total specified36,470100.00
Inhabited Houses32,05987.91
Inhabited Stores, Offices, and Public Buildings1,0933.00
Inhabited Tents1,0132.78
Uninhabited Houses2,1875.99
Being built1180.32
Total specified33,885100.00
Brick or Stone8,05923.79
Wood, Iron, and Lath and Plaster23,65369.80
Slab, Bark, Mud, &c.1,3043.84
Canvas, Linen, Calico, &c.8692.57
Total Number of Assessments.
Total specified33,814100.00
Under £1010,72431.72
£10 to £2011,76034.78
£20 to £306,09918.05
£30 to £402,3867.06
£40 to £501,1193.30
£50 to £607142.11
£60 to £702880.85
£70 to £802060.61
£80 to £901220.36
£90 to £100450.13
£100 and over3511.03
Total specified33,838100.00
One Room—
Brick, Stone, Iron, &c.7172.11
Huts, Tents, &c.2,2456.64
Two Rooms3,52910.43
Three and Four Rooms13,02838.50
Five and Six Rooms8,19324.22
Seven & under Ten Rooms4,15812.28
Ten and over1,9685.82
Aggregrate Rooms.
Total specified164,567100.00
One Room—
Brick, Stone, Iron, &c.7170.43
Huts, Tents, &c.2,2451.36
Two Rooms7,0584.28
Three and Four Rooms50,92630.95
Five and Six Rooms44,69327.16
Seven & under Ten Rooms32,15819.54
Ten and over26,77016.28
Aggregate Amount of Assessment.
Total specified£609150100.00
Under £1052,8618.68
£10 to £20153,85625.26
£20 to £30138,93322.81
£30 to £4077,42112.71
£40 to £5046,9317.70
£50 to £6036,7126.03
£60 to £7017,6752.90
£70 to £8014,8972.44
£80 to £909,7961.61
£90 to £1004,0940.67
£100 and over55,9749.19
Population and Dwellings.—General Summary., TABLE III.—Inhabitants and Dwellings in Tasmania on the 31st March, 1901., NUMERICAL.
Dwellers inTravellers and persons sleeping under drays and c&ing out.Persons in ships.Migratory.Total persons.
Brick, stone, wood, or lath and plaster buildings.Slab, bark, or mud huts.Tents and dwellings with canvas roofs.Habitations of unspecified materials.
Proportion of the Sexes, Density of Population, and Houses at Successive Census Periods., TABLE IV.—Number of Females to 100 Males, and Number of Persons to the Square Mile, at the period of each Enumeration from 1841 to 1901, also Number of Persons to the Inhabited House, and of Inhabited Houses to the Square Mile.
Date of Enumeration.No. of Females to 100 Males.Number of Persons to the Square Mile.Number of Persons to the Inhabited Dwelling.Number of Inhabited Dwellings to the Square Mills.
27 September, 184145.541.927.320.26
31 December, 184746.702.687.370.36
1 March, 185159.062.686.250.43
31 March, 185775.983.115.710.55
7 April, 186181.433.435.120.67
7 February, 187084.733.795.500.69
3 April, 188189.184.395.260.83
5 April, 189189.125.605.231.07
31 March, 190192.446.585.051.30
Increase of Population., 1841-91., TABLE V.—Showing the Increase or Decrease of the Population at successive Census Periods, 1841-1901.
Date of Enumeration.Interval between each Enumeration (Years.)Total Population.Increase or Decrease.
Persons.Males.Females.Actual since previous Census.Percentage since previous Census.Percentage since 1841.
Persons.Males.Females.Decennial Rate.Annual Rate.Annual Rate.
1841—27 September a50,21634,50415,712
1847—31 December b6.2670,16447,82822,33619,94813,3246,62463.465.455.45
1851—1 March c3.1470,13043,12725,482-34-4,7013,146-0.15-0.0013.62
1857—31 March d6.0881,49245,91634,88611,3622,7899,40426.642.503.18
1861— 7 April4.0289,97749,59340,3848,4853,6775,49825.912.443.02
1870—7 February8.8499,32852,85346,4759,3513,2606,09111.761.132.44
1881— 3 April e11.15115,70561,16254,54316,3779,3098,06814.781.382.14
1891— 5 April10.01146,66777,56069,10730,96216,40814,56426.732.362.18
1901—31 March9.98172,47589,62482,85125,80812,06413,74417.601.642.09
Total Increase in 59.48 years122,25955,12067,139243.402.09
[a The figures for 1841, as published in Gazette, are full of errors which cannot now be corrected, and should therefore be used with great caution.] [b The figures (Persons) for 1847 include 2246 military, women, and children ; also 3739 male convicts on public works.] [c The figures (Persons) for 1851 include 953 military, women, and children ; also 568 convicts, sex not distinguished.] [(d) The figures (Persons) for 1857 include 630 military, women, and children ;] [(e) The discrepancy in the number of brick and stone houses in 1870 and 1881 arises from a large number of residents in country districts failing to give definite descriptions.]
Population.—Summary, 1857-1901.,TABLE VI.—Showing the Increase or Diminution of the Population of each Electoral District during the interval between each of the last Five Censuses and the one immediately preceding it ; also the Increase or Diminution during the whole period from 1857 to 1901.
Population.Increase or Decrease.Per cent. to Total Population.
1857.1861.1870.1881.1891.1901.1857 to 1861.1861 to 1870.1870 to 1881.1881 to 1891.1891 to 1901.1857 to 1901.1857 to 1861.1861 to 1870.1870 to 1881.1881 to 1891.1891 to 1901.1857 to 1901.1857.1891.1901.
The whole State80,80289,97799,328115,705146,667172,4759,1759,35116,37730,96225,80891,67311.3510.3916.4926.7617.61113.43100.00100.00100.00
North-Eastern Division—
George Town1,3231,3501,6134,4173,6074,896272632,8042,2852,85010,3822.0419.48173.8222.3822.8020.911.642.462.83
Norfolk Plains2,2093,3853,6383,1661,176253-4722.73
Total N.E. Div.24,57629,02832,41739,46647,93951,9774,4523,3897,0498,4734,03827,40118.1211.6821.4721.478.42111.5030.4232.6830.13
North-Western Division—
Devon East5,9564,9859,0543.17
Devon West3,1375,4162,8704,1415,7347,4836,48825,9535.333.22
Total N.W. Div.5,1208,53012,49618,01427,51534,0593,4103,9665,5189,5016,54428,93966.6546.5044.1652.7423.78565.206.3418.7619.75
Population.—Summary, 1857-1901.,TABLE VI.—Showing the Increase or Diminution of the Population of each Electoral District during the interval between each of the last Five Censuses and the one immediately preceding it ; also the Increase or Diminution during the whole period from 1857 to 1901.
Population.Increase or Decrease.Per cent. to Total Population.
1857.1861.1870.1881.1891.1901.1857 to 1861.1861 to 1870.1870 to 1881.1881 to 1891.1891 to 1901.1857 to 1901.1857 to 1861.1861 to 1870.1870 to 1881.1881 to 1891.1891 to 1901.1857 to 1901.1857.1891.1901.
Midland Division—
C&bell Town2,5332,5492,4642,7102,6952,33716-85246-15-358-1960.63-3.3310.00-0.55-1.320.773.131.841.35
Total Mid.Div7,3607,6768,4379,22313,08226,0803167617863,85912,99818,7204.299.919.7541.8499.35254.309.108.9215.12
South-Eastern and South-Western Division
New Norfolk2,6412,6902,9523,6444,2534,764492626926095112,1231.869.7423.4416.7112.0280.403.282.902.76
Total S.E. and S.W. Division43,74644,74345,97849,00258,13160,3599971,2353,0249,1292,22816,61322.892.766.5818.6338.3237.9854.1439.6435.00

NOTE.—The boundaries and the number of Districts were much altered between the Censuses of 1861-1870, 1881-1890, and 1891-1901, and hence it is difficult to make strict comparisons between many of the Districts. Taken in the groups as bracketed, and by the larger divisions, the comparisons are approximately correct.

Population and Dwellings., TABLE VII.—Summaries at Successive Census Periods.
Population (Numerical)—
Population (Centesimal)—
Personsper cent.100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00
Malesper cent.68.7068.1761.5056.3555.1253.2152.8652.8851.96
Femalesper cent.31.3031.8338.5043.6544.8846.7947.1447.1248.04
Females to 100 males45.5446.7059.0675.9881.4384.7389.1889.1292.44
Persons to the square mileNo.1.922.682.683.113.433.794.395.606.58
Persons to the inhabited dwellingNo.7.327.376.255.715.125.505.265.235.05
Percentage Increase or Decrease since last Census—
Decennial Rate63.46-0.1526.6425.9111.7614.7826.7317.60
Annual Rate5.45-0.002.502.441.131.382.362.09
Inhabited Dwellings :
To the square mile0.260.360.430.550.670.690.831.071.30
Having 1 roomper cent.6.618.388.75
More than 1 roomper cent.93.3991.6291.25
Under £20 rentalper cent.65.5166.50
£20 and over £20 rentalper cent.34.4933.50
TABLE VIII.—Dwellings at Successive Census Periods (1841-1901.) NUMERICAL.
Date of Enumeration.Total Number of Dwellings.Occupation.Description.Rooms—Dwellings havingPersons dwelling in
OccupiedUnoccupied.Being built.Brick and stone.Wood, iron, &c.Canvas, bark huts &c.Unspecified.One room.Two rooms.Three and four rooms.Five and six rooms.More than six rooms.Unspecified.Houses.Huts.Tents.Ships.C&ing out.Unspecified.
1841—27 September7,7586,8592976023,4593,489810
1847—31 December10,1879,519955734,9635,224
1851—1 March11,84411,245385615,7236,121
1857—31 March15,01814,2731226236,7608,258
1861—7 April18,59317,566944837,41711,176
1870—7 February20,36418,0482,1461707,84412,42199
1881—3 April23,52921,8581,5331387,67214,0411,1776391,4904,6748,4313,9813,954999110,3682,405484697811,670
1891—5 April29,80128,0241,5881898,45219,2311,8693092,4694,09211,6275,8805,413320141,6271,3912,3341,10313775
1901—31 March36,47034,1652,1871188,05923,6532,1732,5852,9623,52913,0288,1936,1262,632166,5282,5671,7101,38877205
Habitations., TABLE IX.—Summary by Electoral Districts and Divisions.
Total Number of Persons in Schedule.Males.Females.Dwellings.Materials.
Inhabited.Uninhabited.Being Built.Inhabited, Stores, Offices, and Public Buildings.Tents, &c.Brick or Stone.Wood, Iron, or Lath and Plaster.Slab, Bark, or Mud Huts.Tents and Dwellings with Canvas Roofs.Not stated.
The whole State.Each Head172,47589,62482,85132,0592,1871181,0931,0138,05923,6531,3048692,585
Each Group36,47036,470
Percentage to specified100.0051.9648.0487.915.990.323.0027823.7969.803.842.57
North-Eastern Division
George Town4,8962,4612,435932905823990639197
Total N.E. Division51,97726,30525,6729,593551163651622,3757,407137147621
North-Western Division
Devon, West7,4834,0613,4221,3284031318331,276241455
Total N.W. Division34,05918,19115,8686,15631625572023355,569256174422
Midland Division—
C&bell Town2,3871,1811,156470748202532241877
Total Midland Division26,08015,22210,8585,720611272004826724,483767446672
South-Eastern & South Western Division.
New Norfolk4,7642,5232,2417834843665219525605874
Total S.E. & S.W. Division60,35929,90630,45310,590709504711674,6776,194144102870
Habitations., TABLE IX.—Summary by Electoral Districts and Divisions.—continued.
District.Habitations—continued.Travellers and Persons sleeping under Drays or C&ing out.
Aggregate Amount of Assessment—continued.Persons living on
£40 to £50.£50 to £60.£60 to £70.£70 to £80.£80 to £90.£90 to £100.£100 and over.Not stated.Brick, Stone, Wood, Iron, or Lath and Plaster Buildings.Slab, Bark, or Mud Huts.Tents or Dwellings with Canvas Roofs.Habitations of Unstated Materials.Ships.
The whole State.Each Head46,93136,71217,67514,8979,7964,09455,9742,629166,5282,5671,7102051,38877
The whole State.Each Group611,806172,475
The whole State.Specified609,150172,475
The whole State.Percentage to specified7.706.032.902.441.610.679.1996.561.490.990.120.800.04
North-Eastern Division
George Town568350245165500974,811551281
Total N.E. Division17,88513,4185,9635,0933,7971,09815,17163251,29026827549905
North-Western Division
Devon, West53778924514480180440617,36957331311
Total N.W. Division3,1603,8821,2981,2554803602,40544533,1663733151185928
Midland Division
C&bell Town48060036575160500782,289471
Total Midland Division4,7024,7401,4738854139017,61767523,3661,75589134322
South-Eastern and South Western Division.
New Norfolk3356003007582180280754,555361667
Total S.E. & S.W. Division21,18414,6028,9417,6645,1062,54620,78190458,706171229351,19622
Habitations., TABLE IX.—Summary by Electoral Districts and Divisions.—continued.
Total Number of Assessments.Aggregate Amount of Assessment.
Under £10.£10 to £20.£20 to £30.£30 to £40.£40 to £50.£50 to £60.£60 to £70.£70 to £80.£80 to £90.£90 to £100.£100 and over.Not stated.Under £10.£10 to £20.£20 to £30.£30 to £40.
The whole State.Each Head10,72411,7606,0992,3861,119714288206122453512,65652,861153,856138,93377,421
The whole State.Each Group36,470
The whole State.Specified33,814
The whole State.Percentage to specified31.7234.7818.057.063.302.110.850.610.360.131.038.6825.2622.8112.71
North-Eastern Division
George Town43937810929137424973,0384,7182,451921
Total N.E. Division2,9263,4841,8917374242619770461210763215,93643,41042,65223,842
North-Western Division
Devon, West47464114639131542124612,2508,5883,4091,243
Total N.W. Division2,3692,61381329279752117642244510,91934,04518,5189,409
Midland Division
C&bell Town235160471312126125791,3311,9961,020401
Total Midland Division2,4592,1031,168310115932412517567511,64227,83426,21210,049
South-Eastern and South Western Division.
New Norfolk568213361181251222752,1452,523775342
Total S.E. & S.W. Division2,9703,5602,2271,047501285146107652814790414,36448,56751,55134,121
Habitations., TABLE IX.—Summary by Electoral Districts and Divisions.—continued.
Total Number of Houses of 1 Room and over.Aggregate Number of Rooms.
One.Two.Three and Four.Five and Six.Seven and under Ten.Ten and Over.Not stated.One.Two.Three and Four.Five and Six.Seven and under Ten.Ten and Over.Not stated.
Brick, Stone, Wood, Iron, &c.Huts, Tents, &c.Brick, Stone, Wood, Iron, &c.Huts, Tents, &c.
The whole State.Each Head7172,2453,52913,0288,1934,1581,9682,6327172,2457,05850,92644,69332,15826,7702,631
The whole State.Each Group36,470167,198
The whole State.Specified33,838164,567
The whole State.Percentage to specified2.116.6410.4338.5024.2212.285.820.431.364.2830.9527.1619.5416.28
North-Eastern Division
George Town439974412749832974391941,6531,46775247997
Total N.E. Division2422947584,0942,7851,2905926322422941,51615,41915,09110,0688,153627
North-Western Division
Devon, West4534168560332153565445343362,1281,8361,16670954
Total N.W. Division1293637452,5751,5367472244371293631,4909,7478,4425,7003,018437
Midland Division
C&bell Town13215318699655877132110669953851080877
Total Midland Division2191,3741,1812,2807942712476742191,3742,3628,2524,2852,0773,901674
South-Eastern and South Western Division.
New Norfolk618911731716275407561892346,18888856952975
Total S.E. & S.W. Division1272148454,0793,0781,8509058891272141,69017,50816,87514,31311,698893
Population and Dwellings in Electoral Districts, 1901., TABLE X.—Showing Area in Square Miles of each Electoral District, and in the principal Geographical Divisions ; the Population, specifying the number of Chinese and Chinese Half-castes, and the number of Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals ; the number of Dwellings ; the proportion of Females to Males ; the average number of Persons to the Square Mile and to the Inhabited Dwelling ; and the average number of Dwellings to the Square Mile.
District.Area in Square Miles.Total Population.Number of Chinese and Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals in previous Columns.Inhabited Dwellings.Number of Females to 100 Males.Persons to theDwellings to the Square Mile.
Persons.Males.Females.Chinese.Half-caste Chinese.Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals.Square Mile.Inhabited Dwelling.
The whole State26,215172,47589,62482,851482235449797834,16592.446.585.051.30
North-Eastern Division
George Town431.004,8962,4612,43589999298.9411.364.934.34
Total N.E. Division5786.8451,97726,30525,672379205243797710,12097.6089.825.131.72
North-Western Division
Devon, West773.007,4834,0613,422111,35984.269.685.501.75
Total N.W. Division5890.4534,05918,19115,868526,41537.215.785.311.08
Midland Division
C&bell Town892.502,3371,1811,15649897.902.624.690.55
Total Midland Division.7686.7526,08015,22210,858146,40271.323.504.070.83
South Eastern and South Western Division
New Norfolk427.004,7642,5232,241388488.8211.155.382.07
Total S.E. and S.W. Division6254.6260,35929,90630,45337326111,228104.659.655.371.79
Area of Islands, Lakes, Estuaries, &c., not otherwise included646.34
Population and Dwellings in Municipal Districts, 1901., TABLE XI.—Showing Area in Square Miles of each Municipal District, and in the principal Geographical Divisions ; the Population, specifying the number of Chinese and Chinese Halfcastes, and the number of Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals ; the number of Dwellings ; the proportion of Females to Males ; the average number of Persons to the Square Mile and to the Inhabited Dwelling ; and to the average number of Dwellings to the Square Mile.
District.Area in Square Miles.Total Population.Number of Chinese and Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals in previous Columns.Inhabited Dwellings.Number of Females to 100 Males.Persons to theDwellings to the Square Mile.
Persons.Males.Females.Chinese.Half-caste Chinese.Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals.Square Mile.Inhabited Dwelling.
The whole State26,215172,47589,62482,851482235449797834,16592.446.585.051.30
North-Eastern Division
Launceston (City)5.3818,0228,4499,57343511123,323113.303349.815.42617.70
George Town431.004,8962,4612,43589999298.9611.304.932.30
Total N.E. Division5433.3847,27523,95423,3213772352439,18897.368.705.141.69
North-Western Division
Devon, West883.006,6683,6353,03381,20783.467.555.521.36
Total N.W. Division5686.7034,13618,22215,914526,43387.346.005.301.13
Midland Division
C&bell Town622.001,65983282735599.402.664.670.57
Green Ponds142.501,14559255322693.428.035.061.58
Lake District535.75188123653752.840.355.080.69
Total Midland Division8596.0032,05118,24813,803167,58275.663.724.260.88
South-Eastern and South Western Division
Hobart (City)1.9824,65411,69112,963192264,478110.8712450.005.502262.00
New Town13.004,8062,3062,500131831108.40369.705.7863.93
New Norfolk385.254,7642,5232,241388488.8212.365.392.29
Spring Bay381.5066035230813087.491.725.070.34
Port Davey2017.10
Total S.E. and S.W. Division5852.5859,01329,20029,81337326110,962102.1010.085.381.87
Area of Islands, Lakes, Estuaries, &c., not otherwise included646.34
Population and Dwellings in Registration Districts, 1901., TABLE XII.—Showing Area in Square Miles of each Registration District and the principal Geographical Divisions ; the Population, specifying the number of Chinese and Chinese Half-castes and the number of Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals ; the number of Dwellings ; the proportion of Females to Males ; the average number of Persons to the Square Mile and to the Inhabited Dwelling ; and the average number of Dwellings to the Square Mile.
District.Area in Square Miles.Total Population.Number of Chinese and Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals in previous Columns.Inhabited Dwellings.Number of Females to 100 Males.Persons to theDwellings to the Square Mile.
Persons.Males.Females.Chinese.Half-caste Chinese.Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals.Square Mile.Inhabited Dwelling.
The whole State.26,215172,47589,62482,851482235449797834,16592.446.585.051.30
North-Eastern Division
George Town85.7544819325589132.
Total N.E. Division5327.7146,69823,65523,04337720524379779,07997.428.765.141.70
North-Western Division
Emu Bay178.003,1531,6571,4961956090.2917.715.633.14
Port Sorell129.255643222429575.164.365.930.73
Port Frederick31.503,4791,7321,74718638100.85110.455.4520.25
Total N.W. Division5876.7034,05918,19115,868526,41587.245.795.301.09
Midland Division
C&bell Town622.001,65983282735599.412.664.670.57
Green Ponds142.501,14559255322693.418.035.061.58
Total M. Division8227.7532,50418,46414,040167,66977.023.954.230.93
South-Eastern and South Western Division
New Norfolk387.754,7912,5392,252388988.6712.365.392.29
Port Cygnet103.001,678895783133287.4816.295.053.22
Ralph's Bay28.502701531175376.469.473.201.86
Spring Bay523.5086146639517084.751.645.060.32
Tasman Peninsula190.0088549738817978.064.654.940.94
Total S.E. & S.W. Division6136.5059,21429,31429,90037326111,002102.009.685.381.79
Area of Islands, Lakes, Estuaries, &c., not otherwise included646.34
Population and Dwellings in Counties, 1901., TABLE XIII.—Showing Area in Square Miles in each County ; the Population, specifying the number of Chinese and Chinese Half-castes, and the number of Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals ; the number of Dwellings ; the proportion of Females to Males ; the average number of Persons to the Square Mile and to the Inhabited Dwelling ; and the average number of Dwellings to the Square Mile.
County.Area in Square Miles.Total Population.Number of Chinese and Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals in previous Columns.Inhabited Dwellings.Number of Females to 100 Males.Persons to theDwellings to the Square Mile.
Persons.Males.Females.Chinese.Half-caste Chinese.Half-caste Tasmanian Aboriginals.Square Mile.Inhabited Dwelling.
The Whole State26,215172,47589,62482,851482235449797834,16592.446.585.051.30
Wellington (including King's Island)2080.808,2624,4143,848201,51587.194.095.450.74
Flinders' Island792.0043825718179776970.410.556.340.87
Area of Islands, Lakes, Estuaries, &c., not otherwise included646.34
Population and Dwellings, 1901., TABLE XIV.—Showing the Population and Inhabited Dwellings in the various Census Sub-Districts within each Electoral District.
District.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.Females to 100 Males.Persons to a Dwelling.
Part of Gould's Country Road Trust6764321,10823363.914.75
Portland Road Trust31829761510793.405.74
St. Marys Road Trust7617081,46925793.045.71
Fingal Road Trust1,1179072,02445781.204.42
St. Pauls Road Trust27924152010686.384.90
Balance of District6926951637.685.93
Total Fingal8,2202,6115,8311,17681.094.95
Part of Saltwood Road Trust66122100.006.00
Part of Gould's Country Road Trust4327701262.795.83
Derby Town Board32326458711081.725.33
Part of Ringarooma Road Trust8965131,40935357.253.99
Boobyalla Road Trust6633411,00426751.443.76
Part of Scottsdale Road Trust33030663613392.724.78
Scottsdale Town Board6646211,28526393.544.88
Balance of District34324658813371.704.43
Total Ringarooma3,2682,3245,5921,24371.104.49
Part of Patersonia Road Trust606812819113.336.73
St. Leonard's Road Trust16819035872113.104.97
Part of North Esk Road Trust92821743489.125.12
Part of Breadalbane Road Trust475484959171101.875.61
Part of Perth Road Trust78651433083.344.76
Part of Evandale Road Trust7878041,591304102.165.23
Total Evandale1,6601,6933,353630101.965.32
Part of West Tamar Road Trust35129965013485.204.85
Beaconsfield Town Board1,3411,3172,65853098.255.01
George Town Road Trust5276091,136243115.604.67
Part of Saltwood Road Trust2422104528586.785.32
Total George Town2,4612,4354,89699298.944.93
Invermay Town Board4855251,010193108.245.24
Dorset Road Trust34133067111496.795.88
Part of Lisle Road Trust65541192983.084.10
Turner's Marsh Road Trust33932566411995.885.58
Tankerville Road Trust46145891918099.345.10
Part of Evandale Road Trust18624833.333.00
Part of West Tamar Road Trust436474910160108.715.68
Part of Patersonia Road Trust2512294808591.225.64
Part of North Esk Road Trust11516345.455.33
Part of Breadalbane Road Trust2225477113.656.71
Total Selby2,4292,4314,860898100.885.41
Part of Carrick Road Trust1651613266897.564.79
Part of Breadalbane Road Trust12113525649111.585.22
Part of Longford Road Trust9701,0071,977386110.355.12
Part of Perth Road Trust254293547132115.454.14
Total Longford1,5101,5963,106635105.704.89
Part of Westbury Road Trust29927857710992.655.29
Part of Longford Road Trust7866791,41525792.285.50
Part of Lake River Road Trust105761814072.384.52
Total Cressy1,1401,0332,17340690.625.35
Population and Dwellings, 1901., TABLE XIV.—Showing the Population and Inhabited Dwellings in the various Census Sub-Districts within each Electoral District—continued.
District.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.Females to 100 Males.Persons to a Dwelling.
Part of Frankford Road Trust1791333126674.304.72
Part of Exton Road Trust2702294999884.825.09
Westwood Road Trust2091733827182.765.38
Part of West Tamar Road Trust32223956110774.225.24
Part of Westbury Road Trust9881,0111,999394102.355.07
Part of Carrick Road Trust2001913918195.494.82
Total Westbury2,1681,9764,14481791.145.07
TOTAL N.E. DIVISION26,30525,67251,97710,12097.605.13
Part of East Mersey Road Trust221537668.186.10
Part of Frankford Road Trust1231200.003.00
Midhurst Road Trust7495841,33325477.995.24
Part of Deloraine Road Trust9969711,96738497.545.12
Part of Exton Road Trust27727254911198.204.94
Part of Chudleigh Road Trust5585121,07020491.765.24
Part of Great Lake Road Trust37102233.345.00
Total Deloraine2,6062,3634,96996290.705.16
Tarleton Road Trust8507021,55227582.585.64
Devonport Town Board1,3791,3952,774514101.165.39
Kentish Plains Road Trust8406971,53729782.985.17
Part of Latrobe Road Trust41448516107.305.31
Sheffield Town Board20524144690117.564.95
Railton Road Trust51245796917089.245.70
Beulah Road Trust1801423223978.898.25
Total Devonport4,0073,6787,6851,40191.805.48
Part of Chudleigh Road Trust553500.001.66
Penguin Road Trust1,2078902,09735873.745.86
Leven Road Trust1,6791,4063,08555083.765.61
Wilmot Road Trust1831243076970.964.45
Ulverstone Town Board5516131,164226111.275.15
Don Road Trust43638982515389.225.39
Total Devon West4,0613,4227,4831,35984.265.50
Harford and Templeton Road Trust6956151,31021488.506.42
Part of Latrobe Road Trust6407401,380271115.655.09
Part of East Mersey Road Trust44133867914176.664.81
Part of Frankford Road Trust15621639.983.50
Total Latrobe1,7911,6993,49063294.885.52
Burnie Town Board7797691,54826398.705.88
Emu Bay Road Trust8787271,60529782.805.40
Waratah Road Trust9346381,57239268.314.01
Balance of District128141425810.942.44
Total Waratah2,7192,1484,8671,01079.004.81
Horton Road Trust1,4961,2042,70053580.485.04
Table Cape Road Trust1,1471,0382,18539490.505.54
Cam Road Trust36431668012286.815.57
Total Wellington3,0072,5585,5651,05185.065.29
TOTAL N.W. DIVISION18,19115,86834,0596,41587.215.31
Population and Dwellings, 1901., TABLE XIV.—Showing the Population and Inhabited Dwellings in the various Census Sub-Districts within each Electoral District—continued.
District.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.Females to 100 Males.Persons to a Dwelling.
Part of North Macquarie Road Trust8218231,644353100.254.65
Part of South Macquarie Road Trust32130862912995.964.87
Part of Great Lake Road Trust8321541563.643.60
Part of Lake River Road Trust6410166.6710.00
Total C&bell Town1,1811,1562,33749897.904.69
Tunbridge Road Trust2292274568999.125.12
Part of South Macquarie Road Trust3223551171.865.00
Part of Tunnack Road Trust7286441,37225388.485.42
Oatlands Road Trust6136041,21724198.565.05
Part of Jerusalem Road Trust4537822182.213.90
Total Oatlands1,6471,5353,18261593.205.17
Part of Great Lake Road Trust140762164354.295.02
Part of Bothwell Road Trust5935381,13121590.725.26
Part of Hamilton Road Trust7627031,46528692.265.12
Part of Upper Derwent Road Trust2722084809576.485.05
Balance of District44246234.542.00
Total Cumberland1,8111,5273,33866284.285.04
Zeehan Town Board2,7312,2835,0141,17783.614.26
Montagu Road Trust1,0276111,63846659.493.51
Balance of District65551203484.613.53
Total Zeehan3,8232,9496,7721,67777.144.03
Strahan Town Board8256791,50429982.295.03
Gormanston Town Board1,2095511,76056345.583.12
Queenstown Town Board3,1171,9345,0511,33762.043.77
Balance of District1,6095272,13675132.752.84
Total Lyell6,7603,69110,4512,95054.623.54
TOTAL MIDLAND DIVISION15,22210,85826,0806,40271.324.07
Green Ponds Road Trust5855441,12922393.005.06
Part of Jerusalem Road Trust79163128.585.33
Broad Marsh Road Trust47944792618193.325.11
Part of Bridgewater Road Trust13213326554100.764.91
Old Beach Road Trust24724749498100.005.04
Part of Tea Tree Road Trust66621282493.945.33
Total Brighton1,5161,4422,95858395.135.07
Richmond Road Trust5896031,192222102.385.37
Part of Jerusalem Road Trust290303593107104.485.54
Part of Tea Tree Road Trust2927561193.105.09
Part of Cambridge Road Trust1921733656890.115.36
Beltana Town Board10814325145132.425.58
Total Richmond1,2081,2492,457453103.375.42
Upper Sorell Road Trust48142991016389.205.58
Lower Sorell Road Trust2352074427988.105.59
Bream Creek Road Trust36331868111987.615.72
Tasman Peninsula Road Trust44634779316177.804.92
Carnarvon Town Board5141921880.405.11
Part of Cambridge Road Trust63621252598.405.00
Bellerive Town Board293360653124122.855.26
Clarence Road Trust1751633387093.144.83
South Arm Road Trust68501182373.545.13
Total Sorell2,1751,9774,15278290.915.30
Population and Dwellings, 1901., TABLE XIV.—Showing the Population and Inhabited Dwellings in the various Census Sub-Districts within each Electoral District—continued.
District.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.Females to 100 Males.Persons to a Dwelling.
Part of Glamorgan Road Trust410433843172105.614.90
Part of Spring Bay Road Trust35930866713285.785.05
Part of Tunnack Road Trust107871943881.305.10
Total Glamorgan8768281,70434294.524.98
Part of South Bridgewater Road Trust1131102233897.365.87
Sorell Creek Road Trust25022347310089.204.73
Part of Augusta Road Trust14514929457102.765.15
Kensington Road Trust461500961173108.455.55
Moonah Town Board320412732144128.755.08
Glebe Town Town Board323371694128114.865.42
New Town Town Board1,1271,1872,314367105.326.30
Part of Mt. Stuart Town Board21726247991120.725.26
Balance of District45519622113.324.36
Total Glenorchy3,0013,2656,2661,120108.805.59
TOTAL S. E. DIVISION20,46721,72442,1917,758106.175.43
Victoria Road Trust51546097518189.325.38
Part of Longley Road Trust1811643456990.615.00
Part of Woodstock Road Trust1251042294583.205.09
Part of Margate Road Trust33530864312491.965.18
Port Cygnet Road Trust5965661,16222494.965.18
Part of Welsh Road Trust2151483537868.844.52
Gordon Road Trust36431267613885.724.89
North Bruni Road Trust76691452890.805.18
South Bruni Road Trust1491362855291.305.48
Balance of District3471133.337.00
Total Kingborough2,5592,2714,83094088.785.13
Queenborough Town Board8309911,821363119.415.02
Queenborough Road Trust22833956791148.696.23
Ridgeway Road Trust92681603273.925.00
Part of Leslie Road Trust264289553107109.485.17
Wellesley Road Trust313331644117105.765.50
Part of Kingston Road Trust21724245997111.504.73
Part of Mt. Stuart Town Board232144691.307.33
Total Queenborough1,9672,2814,248813115.905.22
Lower Derwent Road Trust6015081,10924584.524.52
Part of South Bridgewater Road Trust56531092394.614.74
New Norfolk Road Trust9919651,95630497.396.43
Glen Fern Road Trust1861703565891.406.13
Uxbridge Road Trust39731871512980.105.54
Part of Upper Derwent Road Trust29222751912577.744.15
Total New Norfolk2,5232,2414,76488488.825.38
Upper Huon Road Trust1931463397275.644.70
Franklin Road Trust6906411,33124692.915.41
Liverpool Road Trust43635879415482.105.15
Surge's Bay Road Trust1591102695169.185.27
Esperance Road Trust32025457412079.384.78
Southport Road Trust39730370011976.345.88
Balance of District1951243197163.604.49
Total Franklin2,3901,9364,32683381.005.19
TOTAL S.W. DIVISION9,4398,72918,1683,47092.845.23
TOTAL TASMANIA89,62482,851172,47534,16592.445.05
Population and Dwellings, 1901., TABLE XV.—Showing in regard to each City, Town or Village in the State (of more than 100 Inhabitants), the Electoral and Municipal District in which situated, the Pursuits with which connected, the Stream or River on which built, the number of Inhabitants, and the number of Inhabited Dwellings, (C) signifies City, (T) Township or Village.
City, Town, or Village.Where situated.Pursuits connected with.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.
Electoral District.Municipal or Police District.On what River, Stream, &c.Total.Males.Females.
Alberton (T)RingaroomaRingaroomaMining1831018235
Alveston (T)DeloraineDeloraineMeander RiverA and P farming125665923
Avoca (T)FingalFingalSouth Esk RiverPastoral farming183919233
Beaconsfield (T)George TownGeorge TownAnderson's CreekMining2,6581,3411,317530
Bellerive (T)SorellClarenceRiver DerwentSuburb of Hobart653293360124
Bothwell (T)CumberlandBothwellRiver ClydeA. and P. farming38417520983
Bracknell (T)CressyWestburyRiver LiffeyA. farming160827838
Branxholm (T)RingaroomaRingaroomaRingarooma Rvr.Tin-mining145776827
Bridgewater, N.BrightonBrightonRiver DerwentRailway Junction, A. and P. farming21410910538
Beltana (T)RichmondHobartRiver DerwentSuburb of Hobart25110814345
Bismarck (T)GlenorchyGlenorchySorell CreekFruit-growing2061109646
BroadmarshBrightonBrightonRiver JordanA. and P. farming166937330
Buckland (T)GlamorganSpring BayProsser's RiverA. and P. farming74363817
Burnie (T)WaratahEmu BayEmu River and Bass StraitsA. farming, mining seaport1,548779769263
C&bell Twn. (T)C&bell Twn.C&bell Twn.Elizabeth RiverP. farming735331404169
Carrick (T)WestburyWestburyLiffey RiverA. farming22411810651
Chudleigh (T)DeloraineDeloraineLobster RivuletA. farming162897330
Colebrook (T)RichmondRichmondCoal RiverA. and P. farming, coal mining147707727
CornwallFingalFingalCoal mining2009810236
Cressy (T)LongfordLongfordBrumby's CreekA. farming29115213954
Deloraine (T)DeloraineDeloraineMeander RiverA. and P. farming949443506167
Derby (T)RingaroomaRingaroomaCascade RiverTin-mining & agriculture587323264110
Devonport, E (T)DevonportMerseyMersey River and Bass StraitsSeaport and watering place, A. farming673309364128
Devonport, (W), (T)DevonportMerseyMersey River and Bass StraitsSeaport and watering place, A. farming2,1011,0701,031386
Dover (T)FranklinFranklinD'Entrecasteaux ChannelTimber121576423
DundasZeehanMacquarieSilver mining30618212481
Scottsdale (T)RingaroomaRingaroomaCox's RivuletA. farming636330306133
Evandale (T)EvandaleEvandaleSouth Esk RiverA. farming617286331123
Fingal (T)FingalFingalSouth Esk RiverDairy farming and coal mining37219517774
Forth (T)MerseyMerseyForth RiverA. farming2081149438
Franklin (T)FranklinFranklinRiver HuonFruit-growing and timber producing765397368142
Geeveston (T)FranklinFranklinKermandie RiverTimber and fruit-growing28915313655
George Town (T)George TownGeorge TownRiver TamarWatering place27412315153
Gladstone (T)RingaroomaRingaroomaRingarooma R.Tin-mining163937042
Glenorchy (T)GlenorchyGlenorchyRiver DerwentFruit and hop-growing578279299107
Glebeton (T)GlenorchyGlenorchySuburb of Hobart694323371128
Gormanston (T)LyellMacquarieMining1,7601,209551240
(including North Lyell.)
Gould's CountryFingalPortlandNorth George R.Farming25413511933
Hagley (T)WestburyWestburyA. farming77284918
Hamilton (T)HamiltonHamiltonRiver OuseP. farming23210213059
Hobart (C)HobartHobartRiver DerwentMetropolis24,65411,69112,9634,478
HuonvilleFranklinFranklinRiver HuonFruit-growing26113912251
Invermay (T)SelbySelbyRiver TamarSuburb of Launceston1,010485525193
Kempton (T)BrightonGreen PondsA. and P. farming28813715163
Kettering (T)KingboroughKingboroughD'Entrecasteaux ChannelFruit-growing152876530
Kingston (T)KingboroughKingboroughBrown's RiverWatering place & dairying2199812150
Latrobe (T)LatrobeLatrobeA. farming1,360633727266
Launceston (C)LauncestonLauncestonRiver TamarCity18,0228,4499,5733,323
Lefroy (T)George TownGeorge TownNine-mile CreekMining, gold709345364158
LeithMerseyMerseyRiver ForthA. farming (seaport)160817920
Lisle (T)SelbySelbyBessell RivuletMining, gold119655429
Longford (T)LongfordLongfordSouth Esk RiverA. & P. farming1,223592631247
Low HeadGeorge TownGeorge TownRiver TamarCable Station99356419
Lovett (T)FranklinFranklinRiver HuonFruit-growing23011611443
Population and Dwellings, 1901., TABLE XV.—Showing in regard to each City, Town or Village in the State (of more than 100 Inhabitants), the Electoral and Municipal District in which situated, the Pursuits with which connected, the Stream or River on which built, the number of Inhabitants, and the number of Inhabited Dwellings, (C) signifies City, (T) Township or Village.
City, Town, or Village.Where situated.Pursuits connected with.Population.Inhabited Dwellings.
Electoral District.Municipal or Police District.On what River, Stream, &c.Total.Males.Females.
ManganaFingalFingalRichardson's CreekMining24312112250
Mathinna (T)FingalFingalSouth EskGold-mining815435380169
Moonah (T)GlenorchyGlenorchySuburb of Hobart732320412144
Mt. Nicholas (T)FingalFingalCoal-mining91613020
Mt. Stuart (T)GlenorchyHobartSuburb of Hobart52324028397
New Norfolk (T)New NorfolkNew NorfolkRiver DerwentFruit and hop-growing1,151557594144
New Town (T)GlenorchyNew TownSuburb of Hobart2,3141,1271,187367
Oatlands (T)OatlandsOatlandsLake DalvertonA. and P. farming618280338125
PenguinW. DevonMerseyPenguin CreekA. farming540288252105
Perth (T)LongfordLongfordSouth EskA. and P. farming442206236106
Pillinger (T)LyellMacquarieKelly BasinMining Seaport637423214159
Pontville (T)BrightonBrightonRiver JordanA. and dairy farming114506423
Queenstown (T)LyellMacquarieMining5,0513,1171,9341,337
RamsgateFranklinFranklinD'Entrecasteaux ChannelFruit-growing130706020
Richmond (T)RichmondRichmondCoal RiverA. and P. farming39517422181
Rangarooma (T)RingaroomaRingaroomaRingarooma Rvr.Mining and A. farming23012710348
Ross (T)C&bell TownRossMacquarie RiverP. farming31115515665
Sandy Bay (T)KingboroughQueenboroughRiver DerwentSuburb of Hobart1,821830991363
Sheffield (T)DevonportMerseyA. farming44620524190
Sorell (T)SorellSorellPittwaterA. and P. farming24511912645
Stanley (T)WellingtonRussellBass StraitsA. farming48423425093
St. Helens (T)FingalPortlandGeorge's RiverDairy and A. farming41020420673
St. Leonards (T)EvandaleSelbyNorth Esk RiverSuburb of Launceston26511515055
St. Marys (T)FingalFingalBreak o' Day Rr.Mining and A. farming28114713459
Strahan (T)LyellMacquarieMacquarie HarbourMining seaport1,504825679299
Swansea (T)GlamorganGlamorganOyster BayA. farming and fruitgrowing21311010350
Tea TreeBrightonBrightonStrathallern Rivt.A. and P. farming184958933
TrevallynSelbySelbyRiver TamarSuburb of Launceston52925127892
Triabunna (T)GlamorganSpring BaySpring BayA. farming181899237
Ulverstone (T)W. DevonMerseyRiver LevenA. farming1,164551613226
Waratah (T)WaratahEmu BayTin-mining35018816280
WeldboroughFingalPortlandWeld RiverMining2831948980
Wellington HamletsKingboroughQueenboroughSuburb of Hobart776388388172
Westbury (T)WestburyWestburyQuamby's BrookA. farming1,027491536229
WinkleighWestburyWestburyA. farming2231339044
WoodbridgeKingboroughKingboroughD'Entrecasteaux ChannelFruit-growing1941058944
Wynyard (T)WellingtonEmu BayRiver InglisA. farming52625627088
Zeehan (T)ZeehanMacquarieSilver-mining5,0142,7312,2831,177

PAGE 25.

Population of Waratah should read Total 1265, M. 707, F. 264.

Electoral Representation., TABLE XVI.—Showing for each District the Population (distinguishing Males 21 years and over) ; the number of Electors and Members ; the Percentage of Electors to Adult Males, and the Percentage proportion of Population to the Quota, in the Census Years 1891 and 1901 respectively., LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.
District.Total Population.Males 21 years and over.Electors.Members.Percentage of Electors to Males 21 years & over.Proportion of Population to Quota.*
The whole State170,475146,66745,96140037†9,4306,750191820.5216.8619.0018.00
North-Eastern Division—
Esk, North8,2137,8391,8881,8275513231129.1817.680.900.90
Esk, South11,4239,8173,3463,1455293571115.8111.351.261.20
Total N.E. Division51,97747,93913,02012,5482,6862,1466620.6517.105.735.88
North-Western Division
Total N.W. Division34,05927,5158,7137,4232,0431,2973323.4417.483.753.38
Midland & South-Western Division
Total Mid. & S.W. Division30,84417,33510,4365,7971,0665293210.219.133.392.13
South-Eastern Division.
Total S.E. Division55,59553,87813,79213,7013,6352,7787726.3520.286.136.61
Quota per Member*9077.68148.0
[* The Quota represents the average number of the Population to each Representative Member for the particular year.] [† Exclusive of 567 adults unspecified as regards exact age.]

NOTE.—The Areas of the greater number of Districts were much altered in the interval between the two Censuses, and hence strict comparison, even between Disricts of the same name, cannot be accurately made.

Electoral Representation., TABLE XVI.—Showing for each District the Population (distinguishing Males 21 years and over) ; the number of Electors and Members ; the Percentage of Electors to Adult Males, and the Percentage Proportion of Population to the Quota, in the Census Years 1891 and 1901 respectively., LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL.—continued., HOUSE OF ASSEMBLY.
District.Total Population.Males 21 years and over.Electors.Members.Percentage of Electors to Males 21 years & over.Proportion of Population to Quota.*
The whole State172,475146,66745,96140037#2020;41,28630,817383689.8276.9838.0136.00
North-Eastern Division
George Town4,8963,6071,0898381,0225711193.8668.141.080.89
Total N.E. Division51,97747,93912,02012,54810,2379,792121285.1678.0411.4511.77
North-Western Division
Devon West7,4835,7341,8571,5471,9151,35111103.1087.331.661.41
Total N.W. Division34,05927,5158,7137,4237,2216,0516682.9081.547.526.75
Midland Division
C&bell Town2,3372,6955776954634341180.2462.450.520.66
Total Midland Division26,08013,0829,0764,61010,6432,73753117.2559.385.753.21
South-Eastern and South Western Division.
New Norfolk4,7644,2531,3601,1879677001171.1058.971.051.04
Total S.E. and S.W. Division60,35958,13115,15214,88813,18512,237151587.0082.2113.3014.27
Quota per Member*4,5384,074
[* The Quota represents the average number of the Population to each Representative Member for the particular year.] [† Exclusive of 567 Adults unspecified as regards exact age.] [‡ The reason why the Electors in this District exceed the resident Adult Males is owing to the circumstance that a large number of the former (fully 370) are residents of the adjoining or other Districts.]

NOTE.—A considerable number of the Electoral Districts were greatly altered in the interval between the two Censuses, and hence strict comparison, even between Districts of the same name, cannot be accurately made.

Births, Deaths, &c., 1891-1901., TABLE XVII.—Births, Deaths, Immigration and Emigration, in Tasmania, between the Censuses 1891-1901.
[* From 1st April, 1891.] [† To 1st April, 1901.] [‡ Corrected by result of Census, 31st March, 1901. It was found that during the ten years the Customs Records of departures were understated by 13.45 per cent.]
Inmates of Institutions., TABLE XVIII.—Inmates of Government Institutions (not including Officers and Attendants) on 31st March, 1901.
General Hospital, Hobart552580
General Hospital, Launceston453984
Contagious Diseases Hospital, Hobart22
Contagious Diseases Hospital, Launceston77
Lying-in Home22931
Hospital for Insane
New Norfolk221189411
Pauper Establishments.
New Town Charitable Institution204145349
Benevolent Asylum, Launceston10040140
Blind Asylum
C&bell-street, Hobart156
Training School for Boysmdash:
INMATES of Private Institution (not including Officers and Attendants) on 31st March, 1901.
Zeehan Hospital8412
Queenstown Hospital30434
Strahan Hospital11
C&bell Town Hospital314
Waratah Hospital
Devon Hospital538
Beaconsfield Hospital123
Homeopathic Hospital, Hobart81119
Homeopathic Hospital, Launceston246
Training Schools for Girls
Other Institutions
Magdalen Home, Sandy Bay6969
St. Joseph's Orphange, Hobart4242
Girls' Industrial School, Hobart3838
Girls' Industrial School, Launceston2121
Boys' Home, Hobart2424
Anchorage Home, New Town51116
Salvation Army Rescue Home, Launceston102030
Hospitals for Insane411
Pauper Establishments489
Training Schools5310
Blind Asylum6
Other Institutions240
Shipping, 1901., TABLE XIX.—Return showing the Population in connection with the Shipping in the Electoral Districts of Tasmania, 31st March, 1901.
Electoral District.Males.Females.TOTAL.
North-Eastern Division
George Town11
North-Western Divison—
Midland Division—
South-Eastern and South-Western Division
North-Eastern Division90
North-Western Division59
Midland Division43
South-Eastern and South-Western Division1,196
Density and Distribution of Population, 1901., TABLE XX.—Area, Density, and Extent of Population in the several Electoral Districts, arranged respectively in the order of their importance.
District.Density of Population per square mile.District.Population.District.Area in square miles.
Franklin1.53C&bell Town2,337Glenorchy48.00
C&bell Town2.62Brighton2,958Longford131.75
Lyell7.35Sorell4,152New Norfolk427.00
Evandale7.77Queenborough4,248George Town431.00
Kingborough8.03New Norfolk4,764Selby494.25
West Devon9.68Waratah4,867Oatlands583.00
Selby9.83George Town4,896Kingborough601.50
New Norfolk11.15Deloraine4,969Devon West773.00
George Town11.36Wellington5,565Deloraine825.75
Westbury11.56Ringarooma5,592C&bell Town892.50
Devonport25.95West Devon7,483Fingal1536.96
All Districts6.58All Districts172,475All Districts26215.00
Density and Distribution of Population, 1901., TABLE XXI.—Area, Density, and Extent of Population in the several Registration Districts, arranged respectively in the order of their importance.
District.Density of Population per square mile.District.Population.District.Area in square miles.
Hamilton0.60Ralph's Bay270Ralph's Bay28.50
Waratah0.83George Town448Port Frederick31.50
Southport0.84Port Sorell564Clarence33.00
Montagu0.98Montagu617George Town85.75
Spring Bay1.64Frankford855Port Cygnet103.00
Victoria1.99Spring Bay861Kingston103.25
Ross2.50Tasman Peninsula885Esperance111.25
C&bell Town2.66Esperance929Port Sorell129.25
Stanley3.97Green Ponds1,145Green Ponds142.50
Port Sorell4.36Victoria1,292Brighton169.00
Letroy4.49Kingston1,311Emu Bay178.00
Tasman Peninsula4.65Bothwell1,347Sheffield184.50
George Town5.22Franklin1,524Tasman Peninsula190.00
Oatlands5.45C&bell Town1,659Ringarooma205.50
Deloraine6.01Port Cygnet1,678Westbury218.75
Green Ponds8.03Hamilton1,991Wynyard374.25
Esperance8.35Stanley2,108New Norfolk387.75
Ralph's Bay9.47Richmond2,457Portland423.00
Brighton10.72Emu Bay3,153Zeehan520.00
Longford11.14Oatlands3,182Spring Bay523.50
New Norfolk12.36Westbury3,289Stanley530.01
Lilydale13.09Port Frederick3,479C&bell Town622.00
Port Cygnet16.29New Norfolk4,791Ulverstone773.00
Emu Bay17.71Longford5,279Strahan914.50
Port Frederick110.45Launceston21,180Waratah2061.50
All Districts6.58All Districts172,475All Districts26215.00



Date of Enumeration, 31st March, 1901.


I. Numbers at, above, and under each Year of Age, 1901

II. Numbers at Quinquennial and other Age Periods, 1901

III. Numbers at (Comparative Numerical), Census, 1870, 1881, 1891, 1901

IV. Numbers (Centesimal) Census, 1870, 1881, 1891, 1901

V. Numerical and Centesimal Increase or Decrease at each Age Period for successive Censuses

VI. Proportion of Sexes at each Age Period, 1861, 1870, 1881, 1891, and 1901

VII. Number of Females to 100 Males at each Age Period, 1861, 1870, 1881, 1891, and 1901

VIII. Mean Age of Population, 1881, 1891 and 1901

IX. Mean Ages at Decennial Periods, 1901

X. Ages at Quinquennial and other Age Periods for the Hobart Registration Districts, including Hobart City and Hobart Suburbs, 1901

XI. Ages at Quinquennial and other Age Periods for the Launceston Registration District, including Launceston City and Launceston Suburbs, 1901

XII. Ages at Quinquennial and other Age Periods for the Rural Registration Districts, 1901

XIII. Summary by Electoral Districts at Single Age Periods 1-21, Quinquennial Periods 21 and over

Numbers at, above, and under each year of Age, 1901., TABLE I.—Showing the probable Number of Persons, Males and Females, at, above, and under each year of Age last Birthday.
Age last Birthday.Population at each year of age.Population at each above each year age.Population under each year of age.

NOTE.—The ages of 147 persons in respect of whom no particulars regarding this category were furnished on Householder's Schedule, have been divided by a process of graduation between the ages of 25 and 45.

Ages of the People, 1901., TABLE II.—Showing the Numbers and Proportions of Persons and Sexes under various Age-groups.
All Ages172,47589,62482,851
Specified Ages172,32889,50482,824100.00100.00100.00
Under 5 years20,86510,70210,16312.1211.9712.28
5 - 65144,44074,97369,46783.8083.7583.85
65 and over7,0233,8293,1944.084.283.87
7 - 14 (school age)39,29415,28224,01222.8017.0728.99
20 - 40 (soldier's age)53,72428,22125,50331.1831.5337.64
15 - 45 (age of fertility)81,91542,88239,03347.5347.9147.13
21 years and over (adults)86,39945,96140,43850.1351.3548.82
Under 1 year4,6863,3332,2732.67
Under 5 years20,86510,70210,16312.1211.9712.28
5 - 1022,02411,16010,86412.7612.4713.12
10 - 1521,13610,64910,48712.2911.9012.66
15 - 2018,4519,3889,06310.7110.4910.94
20 - 2516,4108,2618,1499.529.239.88
25 - 3013,8377,2766,5618.038.137.92
30 - 3511,9986,4225,5766.967.176.73
35 - 4011,4796,2625,2176.667.006.30
40 - 459,7405,2734,4675.655.895.40
45 - 506,8543,7603,0943.984.203.75
50 - 555,1762,7972,3793.003.122.87
55 - 603,8811,9961,8852.252.232.28
60 - 653,4541,7291,7252.001.942.08
65 - 702,6131,2921,3211.511.441.59
70 - 752,0331,1239101.181.251.10
75 - 801,2707565140.740.840.62
80 - 857614593020.440.510.36
85 and over3461991470.200.220.17
Unspecified children
Unspecified adults and altogether147120270.170.130.03
Ages of the People., TABLE III.—Showing the numbers of Persons and Sexes under various Ages at the four last Censuses.
All Ages99,328115,705146,667172,47552,85361,16277,56089,62446,47554,54369,10782,851
Specified Ages99,328115,392146,077172,32852,85360,92476,99089,50446,47554,47869,08782,824
Under 5 years14,30216,19121,46620,8657,1858,12610,83910,7027,1178,06510,62710,163
5 - 6580,66693,578117,884144,44042,52048,91661,85374,97338,14644,66255,83169,467
65 and over4,3605,6236,7277,0233,1483,8824,2983,8291,2121,7412,6293,194
7 - 14 (school age)19,32224,45139,2949,79812,26615,2829512,18524,012
20 - 40 (soldier's age)22,91730,85745,68953,72410,86215,80524,67828,22112,05515,05221,01125,503
15 - 4549,20465,56381,91525,02634,98442,88224,17830,57939,033
21 years and over (adults)55,76472,63386,39930,84240,03745,96124,92232,59840,438
Under 5 years14,30216,19121,46620,8657,1858,12610,83910,7027,1178,06510,62710,163
5 - 1014,59214,24219,39922,0247,4267,2749,87911,1607,1666,9689,52010,864
10 - 1513,54913,66016,46121,1366,7586,9978,28410,6496,7916,6638,17710,487
15 - 208,84813,36613,89218,4514,2956,7017,0739,3884,5536,6656,8209,063
20 - 2512,23111,90313,73716,4105,6645,9757,1548,2616,5675,9286,5838,149
25 - 307,97913,322136,8374,1737,2637,2763,8066,0596,561
30 - 3510,6865,89010,83111,9985,1983,1255,9016,4225,4882,7654,9305,576
35 - 405,0857,79911,4792,5324,3606,2622,5533,4395,217
40 - 4510,5244,9815,9819,7406,2802,5203,2335,2734,2442,4612,7484,467
45 - 504,6774,9156,8542,4202,5743,7602,2572,3413,094
50 - 557,9964,5884,4385,1765,2892,6662,2952,7972,7071,9222,1432,379
55 - 603,5523,7193,8812,1651,9351,9961,3871,7841,885
60 - 654,4843,6553,3893,4543,2252,3681,9021,7291,2591,2871,4871,725
65 - 702,3202,4622,6131,5501,4931,2927709691,321
70 - 751,7561,7542,1712,0331,2621,2411,4051,123494513766910
75 - 809071,1911,270638790756269601514
80 - 8536048662976127134742045989139209302
85 and over1562743462711061901995084147
Unspecified children
Unspecified adults and altogether313590147238570120752027
Ages of the People.—Percental Proportion at various Age Groups., TABLE IV.—Showing the Proportions of Persons and Sexes under various Ages at the four last Censuses.
All Ages (specified)100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00100.00
Under 5 years14.4014.0314.6912.1213.5913.3414.0811.9715.3214.8115.3212.28
5 - 6581.2181.0980.7183.8080.4680.2880.3383.7582.0882.0181.1183.85
65 and over4.394.884.604.085.956.385.894.282.603.183.513.87
7 - 14 (school age)16.7016.7422.8016.0215.9317.0717.4617.6428.99
20 - 40 (soldier's age)23.0726.7331.2931.1820.5525.9432.0531.5325.9427.6430.4237.64
15 - 4542.6344.8947.5341.0645.4447.9144.4044.2747.13
21 years and over (adults)49.5150.1351.6251.3547.1748.82
Under 5 years14.4014.0314.6912.1213.5913.3414.0811.9715.3214.8115.3812.28
5 - 10 years14.6912.3413.2812.7614.0511.9412.8312.4715.4212.7913.7813.12
10 - 15 years13.6411.8411.2712.2912.7911.4810.7611.9014.6112.2411.8412.66
15 - 20 years8.9111.589.5110.718.1311.009.1910.499.8012.249.8710.94
20 - 25 years12.3110.319.419.5210.729.819.299.2314.1310.889.539.83
25 - 30 years6.919.128.036.959.448.136.998.777.92
30 - 35 years10.765.107.426.969.835.137.667.1711.815.087.146.73
35 - 40 years4.415.346.664.155.667.004.694.986.30
40 - 45 years10.594.324.095.6511.884.124.205.899.134.523.985.40
45 - 50 years4.053.363.983.973.344.204.143.393.75
50 - 55 years8.053.983.043.0010.014.382.983.125.823.533.102.87
55 - 60 years3.082.552.253.562.512.232.552.582.28
60 - 65 years4.513.172.322.006.103.892.471.942.712.362.152.08
65 - 70 years2.011.681.512.551.941.441.411.401.59
70 - 75 years1.771.531.481.182.392.041.831.251.060.941.111.10
75 - 80 years0.780.820.741.051.030.840.490.580.62
80 - 85 years0.370.420.430.510.510.570.550.510.190.250.300.36
85 and over0.

PAGE 39.

Age 7-14., 1901., Persons 30,294.

1881., Females 9524., 1901., Females, 15,012.

Ages of the People.—Numerical Increase at successive Censuses., TABLE V.—Number of Persons at each Age-period at the Censuses of 1861, 1870, 1881, 1891, and 1901 ; with Increases or Decreases.
Numbers.Increase or Decrease.Increase per cent.* per Decade.Numbers.Increase or Decrease.Increase per cent.* per Decade.Numbers.Increase or Decrease.Increase per cent.* per Decade.
All Ages1,86189,97749,59340,384
Under 11,8613,1171,6121,505
1,8702,887- 230- 8.391,484- 128- 8.991,403- 102- 7.50
1,9014,606180.392,333- 7- 0.292,273251.12
1,8702,618- 226- 8.871,291- 124- 9.921,327- 102- 8.08
1,9013,878521.351,989622.691,889- 100.52
1,8708,797- 241- 3.024,410- 202- 4.954,387- 39- 1.00
1,90112,381- 671- 5.136,380- 192- 2.926,001- 479- 7.39
1,88114,242- 350- 2.157,274- 152- 1.846,968- 198- 2.49
1,88113,6601110.736,9972393.176,663- 128- 1.69
1,87012,231- 891- 7.685,664- 301- 5.716,567- 590- 9.33
1,87010,686- 2934- 24.395,198- 2778- 38.535,488- 156- 3.13
1,88110,9752892.425,6574597.925,318- 170- 2.78
1,87010,524- 567- 5.796,280- 1042- 16.114,24447514.29
1,8819,658- 866- 7.384,940- 1340- 19.144,71847410.02
1,8818,1401441.614,831- 458- 7.773,30960219.94
1,8915,851- 124- 20.753,39547714.922,45639919.39
1,9015,06721636.923,021- 374- 11.103,04659024.02
1,9013,303- 59- 17.551,879- 316- 14.391,42424721.16
90 and over1,86124213
1,8815159.7531- 5- 12.46201089.69
1,90177- 6- 72.339- 24- 38.10381890.10
Not specified1,861
1,901147- 443- 75.06120- 450- 78.9427735.00

NOTE.—The decreases are noted by the signminus( - ).

[* Reduced to even periods of Ten years ; the periods between the Censuses above referred to were taken to be as follows :—7th April, 1861, to 7th February, 1870 = 8.833 years; 7th February, 1870, to 3rd April, 1881 = 11.15 years ; 3rd April, 1881. to 5th April, 1891 = 10 years ; 5th April, 1891, to 31st March, 1901 - 9.98 years.]
Proportions of Sexes., TABLE VI.—Proportions of Males and Females in every 100 of the general Population, at each Age-period, at the five last Censuses.
All ages55.1253.2152.8652.8851.9344.8846.7947.1447.1248.05
Under 151.7251.4048.2251.0050.6348.2848.6051.7849.0049.34
1 - 249.7649.3148.6750.3751.2850.2450.6951.3349.6348.70
2 - 551.0350.1351.4450.3551.5348.9749.8748.5649.6548.45
5 - 1049.9250.8951.0750.9250.6650.0849.1148.9349.0849.30
10 - 1550.7549.8851.2250.3350.3749.2550.1248.7849.6749.61
15 - 2046.3448.5450.1350.9150.8853.6651.4649.8749.0949.11
20 - 3045.4646.3151.0453.2851.3554.5453.6948.9646.7248.62
30 - 4058.5648.6551.5455.0754.0241.4451.3548.4644.9345.97
40 - 5066.0259.6751.1553.3054.4333.9840.3348.8546.7045.66
50 - 6071.1766.1559.3551.8652.9228.8333.8540.6548.1447.07
60 - 7073.4271.9265.5758.0249.8026.5828.0834.4341.9850.20
70 - 8073.6371.8770.6165.2956.8826.3728.1329.3934.7143.10
80 - 9079.7974.8471.4066.7060.0920.2125.1628.6033.3039.90
90 - over87.5078.2660.7875.9050.6412.5021.7439.2224.1049.35
Not specified76.0496.6181.6123.63.3918.36

This table is to be read thus :—In every 100 of the population in 1861 under one year, 51.72 persons were males and 48.28 were females ; or, to avoid decimals, in every 10,000 persons in that year 5172 were males and 4828 females.

Number of Females to 100 Males., TABLE VII.—Number of Females to every 100 Males at each Age-period, at the five last Censuses.
All Ages100.081.43100.0087.93100.0089.18100.0089.10100.0092.52
Under 1 year100.0093.36100.0094.54100.00107.39100.0096.07100.0097.42
1 - 2100.99102.79105.4898.5394.98
2 - 595.9799.4894.4198.6294.06
5 - 10100.3296.5095.7996.3893.64
10 - 1597.04100.4995.2398.7098.49
15 - 20115.78106.0199.4696.4296.52
20 - 30119.98115.9495.9287.7094.69
30 - 4070.76105.5893.9481.5785.08
40 - 5051.4867.5195.5187.6483.68
50 - 6040.5251.1868.4991.3388.94
60 - 7036.2139.0452.5072.34100.80
70 - 8035.8239.1441.6253.1775.79
80 - 9025.3233.6240.0549.9166.39
90 and over14.2827.7864.5231.7597.42
Not specified31.513.512.25

This table is to be read thus :—To every 100 males at all ages in 1861 there were 81.43 females, and to every 100 males under one year, 93.36 females ; or, to avoid decimals, to ever 10,000 males at all ages there were 8143 females, and to every 10,000 males under one year, 9336 females.

Mean Age of Total Population., TABLE VIII.—Mean Age of the Total Population, Persons, Males, and Females, at the Censuses of 1881, 1891, and 1901.
Mean Ages., TABLE IX.—Mean Ages at Decennial Periods, at the Census of 1901.
Ages.Mean Ages.

NOTE.—The Mean Age at the Censuses previous to 1881 cannot be ascertained.

Ages of the People.—Hobart Registration District, Hobart City, and Hobart Suburbs, 1901., TABLE X.—Showing the Numbers and Proportions of Persons and Sexes under various Age-groups.
Hobart District.Hobart City.Hobart Suburbs.
Numerical.Centesimal (specified).Numerical.Centesimal (specified).Numerical.Centesimal (specified).
All Ages34,60416,38518,21924,65411,69112,9639,9504,6945,256
All Ages specified34,60016,38318,217100.00100.00100.0024,65011,68912,961100.00100.00100.009,9504,6945,256100.00100.00100.00
Under 5 years3,4181,7371,6819.8810.609.232,3541,1461,2089.549.809.321,06459147310.6912.589.00
5 - 6529,35913,75515,60484.8483.9685.6421,15110,01911,13285.8185.7085.878,2083,7364,47282.4979.6085.09
65 and over1,8238919325.285.445.131,1455246214.654.504.816783673116.827.825.91
7 - 14 (school age)5,7652,8602,90516.6617.4515.954,0301,9552,07516.3516.7216.011,73590583017.4419.2815.78
20 - 40 (soldier's age)10,9635,0385,92531.6830.7532.538,1333,8744,25932.9933.1532.852,8301,1641,66628.4424.8031.69
15 - 4516,9037,7589,14548.8747.3550.2012,3185,8076,51149.9649.6950.224,5851,9512,63448.0941.5550.12
21 years and over (adults)18,5118,6149,89753.5452.5754.3313,38463.237,06154.3154.1054.465,1272,2912,83651.5248.8053.96
Under 5 years3,4181,7371,6819.8810.609.232,3541,1461,2089.549.809.321,06459147310.6912.589.00
5 - 103,9241,9591,96511.3411.9610.792,7841,3851,39911.2911.8510.781,14057456611.4712.2310.77
10 - 154,1312,0172,11411.9412.3111.612,8821,3721,51011.7011.7411.651,24964560412.5613.7411.49
15 - 203,8931,7672,12611.2510.7911.682,7211,2331,48811.0410.5511.481,17253463811.7911.3812.13
20 - 253,5141,5771,93710.169.6210.642,6431,2481,39510.7310.6810.768713295428.757.0110.31
25 - 302,7131,2321,4817.847.528.132,0529761,0768.338.358.306612564056.645.457.71
30 - 352,3861,1021,2846.896.727.061,7418319107.077.117.036452713746.485.777.12
35 - 402,3501,1271,2236.796.886.711,6978198786.887.016.776533083456.566.566.58
40 - 452,0479531,0945.925.806.001,4647007645.945.995.905832533305.865.396.28
45 - 501,4927137794.324.354.281,0805195614.384.444.334121942184.144.144.15
50 - 551,1875616263.443.423.448463904563.433.343.523411711703.433.643.23
55 - 609154075082.642.482.786803093712.762.652.86235981372.362.092.61
60 - 658073404672.342.072.565612373242.282.032.492461031432.472.002.72
65 - 706642893751.921.762.064591992601.861.702.01205901152.061.922.19
70 - 755312532781.531.541.523311471841.341.261.42200106942.012.261.78
75 - 803461831631.001.170.89212981140.860.830.8913485491.341.810.93
80 - 85186108780.530.650.429552430.380.440.339156350.911.190.66
85 and over9658380.270.360.204828200.190.230.154830181.480.630.34
Not specified422422
Ages of the People.—Launceston Registration District, Launceston City, and Launceston Suburbs, 1901., TABLE XI.—Showing the Numbers and Proportions of Persons and Sexes under various Age-groups.
Launceston District.Launceston City.Launceston Suburbs.
Numerical.Centesimal (specified).Numerical.Centesimal (specified).Numerical.Centesimal (specified).
All Ages21,18010,01311,16718,0228,4499,5733,1581,5641,594
All ages specified21,17010,00311,167100.00100.00100.0018,0138,4409,573100.00100.00100.003,1571,5631,594100.00100.00100.00
Under 5 years2,2251,1641,06110.5111.639.501,83594788810.1911.229.2839021717312.3513.8810.85
5 - 6517,9498,3549,59584.7983.5285.9215,3167,0758,24185.0283.8386.082,6331,2791,35483.4181.8484.94
65 and over9964855114.704.854.588624184444.794.954.5413467674.244.284.21
7 - 14 (school age)3,6261,7861,84017.1417.8516.483,0311,4951,53616.8217.7116.0459529130418.8418.6219.07
20 - 40 (soldier's age)6,7112,8643,84731.7028.6234.455,8342,4693,36532.3829.2535.1587739548227.7825.2730.25
15 - 4510,2644,5765,68848.4945.7450.958,8633,9094,95449.2046.3151.751,40166773444.3842.684.60
21 years and over (adults)11,0625,0356,02752.2650.3253.989,5334,3055,22852.1551.0054.611,52973079948.4446.7150.12
Under 5 years2,2251,1641,06110.5111.639.501,83594788810.1911.229.2839021717312.3513.8810.85
5 - 102,5581,2741,28412.0812.7411.502,1231,0661,05711.7812.6311.0443520822713.7813.3214.24
10 - 152,5711,2691,30212.1412.6811.662,1361,0541,08211.8612.4911.3043521522013.7813.7713.80
15 - 202,3351,1021,23311.0311.0211.042,0019341,06711.1111.0711.1533416816610.5810.7510.41
20 - 252,0748171,2579.808.1711.261,8207081,11210.108.3911.612541091458.056.989.10
25 - 301,6426779657.756.778.641,4455928538.027.018.91197851126.245.447.03
30 - 351,5416998427.296.987.541,3246007247.357.127.56217991186.886.347.40
35 - 401,4546717836.876.717.011,2455696766.916.747.062091021076.626.536.71
40 - 451,2186106085.756.105.451,0285065225.716.005.45190104866.026.655.40
45 - 509034544494.274.544.027583743844.214.434.0114580654.595.134.08
50 - 556593133463.113.133.095562662903.093.153.0310347563.263.003.51
55 - 605392522872.552.522.574782192592.652.592.716133281.932.121.76
60 - 654552162392.152.162.154021872152.232.222.255329241.681.861.51
65 - 703511551961.651.551.752981301681.661.541.765325281.671.591.76
70 - 752941451491.391.451.342591291301.441.531.363516191.111.031.19
75 - 8018999900.890.990.8015981780.880.950.813018120.951.150.75
80 - 8511563520.540.630.4610356470.570.660.4912750.380.440.32
85 and over4723240.220.230.224322210.240.260.224130.130.010.18
Not specified10109911
Ages of the People.—1901.—Rural Registration Districts., TABLE XII.—Showing the Numbers and Proportions of Persons and Sexes under various Age-groups.
All Ages116,69163,22653,465
All Ages specified116,55863,11853,440100.00100.00100.00
Under 5 years15,2227,8017,42113.0612.3613.88
5 - 6597,13252,86444,26883.2383.7682.84
65 and over4,2042,4531,7513.613.383.28
7 - 14 (school age)29,90310,63619,26725.6616.8536.05
20 - 40 (soldier's age)36,05020,31915,73130.9332.1929.45
15 - 4554,74830,54824,19646.9648.4045.28
21 years and over (adults)56,82632,31224,51448.7553.7545.87
Under 5 years15,2227,8017,42113.0612.3613.88
5 - 1015,5427,9277,61513.3312.5614.25
10 - 1514,4347,3637,07112.3711.6713.23
15 - 2012,2236,5195,70410.5010.3310.67
20 - 2510,8225,8674,9559.299.299.27
25 - 309,4825,3674,1158.148.507.70
30 - 358,0714,6213,4506.937.336.46
35 - 407,6754,4643,2116.587.076.02
40 - 456,4753,7102,7655.565.885.18
45 - 504,4592,5931,8663.834.103.49
50 - 553,3301,9231,4072.863.042.63
55 - 602,4271,3371,0902.082.122.04
60 - 652,1921,1731,0191.881.861.91
65 - 701,5988487501.371.341.40
70 - 751,2087254831.031.150.90
75 - 807354742610.630.750.49
80 - 854602881720.390.460.32
85 years and over203118850.170.190.16
Unspecified children
Unspecified adults and altogether13310825
Summary by Electoral Districts., TABLE XIII.—Showing the Number of Persons, Males and Females, at each period of Age, living in each Electoral District.
Ages.Total of Tasmania.Evandale.Fingal.Launceston.George Town.Ringarooma.
All Ages172,47589,62482,8513,3531,6601,6935,8313,2202,61118,0228,4499,5734,8962,4612,4355,5923,2682,324
Specified Ages172,32889,50482,8243,3531,6601,6935,8283,2182,61018,0138,4409,5734,8832,4542,4295,5913,2672,324
Under 1 year4,6062,3332,27387335421111110040619121515174771357263
1 - 2 years3,8781,9891,889843747127606733617516110756511126151
2 - 33,9762,0801,8961014754153846934919715213576591497079
3 - 44,1302,1062,024693633175789736119516613273591468660
4 - 54,2752,1942,0811105753152846838318919414263791638380
5 - 64,2772,1432,134894643173908339921518413969701386969
6 - 74,4762,2912,185985246171848742120621513669671417368
7 - 84,3912,2212,170984256160916943020023015181701518368
8 - 94,5272,3202,207824438165778845722523214476681337162
9 - 104,3532,1852,168975443166769041622019612764631608773
10 - 114,4462,2592,187976136164808444122621514271711457372
11 - 124,1952,1212,074875037143737041820321512461631255768
12 - 134,2102,1092,101864145150866441920321613871671326963
13 - 144,1722,0672,105833647164808445021823214571741153560
14 - 154,1132,0932,020803644133765740820420412566591387068
15 - 163,8121,9771,835833944133637042021220811957621337261
16 - 173,8031,8761,927783939125755042220521712158631266759
17 - 183,6361,8171,819704030111605138818720112060601206555
18 - 193,6971,9251,772773146127735437415022411459551197940
19 - 203,5031,7931,71066293711262503971802179344491217150
20 - 213,4531,6441,80967313612169523851342519646501217447
21 - 2512,9576,6176,3402281061223651911741,435574861304133171414245169
25 - 3013,8377,2766,561213971164312481831,445592853342165177426270156
30 - 3511,9986,4225,576201911103642001641,324600724308147161388233155
35 - 4011,4796,2625,217206991073672321351,245569676265133132354220134
40 - 459,7405,2734,467190105853351831521,028506522260133127353228125
45 - 506,8543,7603,094135775822313885758374384194959923016070
50 - 555,1762,7972,37986424417510768556266290159867320713770
55 - 603,8811,9961,885794534118724647821925911461531348153
60 - 653,4541,7291,72573353812588374021872159053371087533
65 - 702,6131,2921,321613031724329298130168613229886424
70 - 752,0331,12391047242352371525912913039221731247
75 - 801,2707565142516935296159817826161017107
80 - 8576145930216106231491035647149515123
85 and upwards346199147422743432221642312
Summary by Electoral Districts., TABLE XIII.—Showing the Number of Persons, Males and Females, at each period of Age, living in each Electoral District.—continued.
All Ages4,8602,4292,4313,1061,5101,5962,1731,1401,0334,1442,1681,9764,9692,6062,3637,6854,0073,678
Specified Ages4,8592,4282,4313,1061,5101,5962,1731,1401,0334,1412,1671,9744,9682,6052,3637,6854,0073,678
Under 1 year12676507740376330339951481528171245108137
1 - 2 years13777607936434519268248341267056202101101
2 - 311563528746414824249041491205862234128106
3 - 413069617432426332319345481356966208108100
4 - 5138696981473466353113464701456679229117112
5 - 615167847237355526298339441448262228111117
6 - 7142746889543552351710359441366274239121118
7 - 8139657475413456272911259531267155223111112
8 - 9142746887424555272810352511427270229122107
9 - 10121526991484364313312055651396178213110103
10 - 11165739275403550242610863451367066242134108
11 - 1212965647036346634321005347135716419810098
12 - 13140726872314157302710053471115259215110105
13 - 141245569924250482523119605915484701759382
14 - 1513773648539465532231056144122596319511283
15 - 161075651673829442420115684710769381647688
16 - 17105574873324150262488444497435418010080
17 - 18965244583028352015107525511864541617883
18 - 1910152496226364822268036449941581536885
19 - 208437475023276033277645319551441256659
20 - 218641454515304020206626407536391546985
21 - 25280118162186731131597881268138130343169174479262217
25 - 303081361722371131241617982307173134363205158556280276
30 - 3529613316317389841407565256143113342175167509283226
35 - 4030915515417073971286662253138115301181120527273254
40 - 452761481281749480110694120498106253135118418229189
45 - 50208114941205268683434171848718410480239133106
50 - 5516678881166254724131138677113073571879691
55 - 6010057431005248593524115684710951581498168
60 - 651025943904050612932122685411255571466680
65 - 707539365924353927128237457033371106842
70 - 75552926532330211110714328633924764927
75 - 804024163522131459362313392118362115
80 - 8522166211110159623101327189291811
85 and upwards7341174661239181441257
Summary by Electoral Districts., TABLE XIII.—Showing the Number of Persons, Males and Females, at each period of Age, living in each Electoral District.—continued.
Ages.Devon West.Latrobe.Waratah.Wellington.C&bell Town.Oatlands.
All Ages7,4834,0613,4223,4901,7911,6994,8672,7192,1485,5653,0072,5582,3371,1811,1563,1821,6471,535
Specified Ages7,4664,0453,4213,4901,7901,6994,8612,7142,1475,5633,0062,5572,3371,1811,1563,1821,6471,535
Under 1 year2551421131036142149727720310598633726903951
1 - 2 years21310510898574112863651739083542727754134
2 - 31911177484364812466581568472542331916427
3 - 422210711585414412356671768789542628865333
4 - 5231118113101554611854641557976573126904743
5 - 61999010990405014469751767997542925904248
6 - 7246137109954946115546116690766631351035647
7 - 8198999995445112567581538865653134763640
8 - 9248131117100435715279731487870724230965739
9 - 101941019385473812251711597584573324954550
10 - 112201259598485011250621628973613229874542
11 - 1220712186102544813261711447470603129994851
12 - 1320910610385384711163481346866642638884741
13 - 141879196104564811260521406674482919944054
14 - 151961029497455211356571318348552530762551
15 - 16170102688342419253391196257512427794336
16 - 17161867581334810750571357659643232754827
17 - 1815083677133389347461135855533023753342
18 - 1916893758845439457371055946512526753738
19 - 20142717182483410058421195861442222643529
20 - 21133617263224110965441075651421824613526
21 - 25497251246259144115382220162369210159142746819792105
25 - 30550307243220118102441269172427231196169749519388105
30 - 3546025220820195106394241153387220167144717318810088
35 - 4047928119820611492348223125353196157167937418410282
40 - 453712001712081179127717710026516210312357661658778
45 - 5026015210814576691861167017496789551441146153
50 - 551921197397514611574411337261654124904842
55 - 6013772656530358648381015744632736734033
60 - 6512165565928315430241076245602337622933
65 - 701015447522626432419673235421725532726
70 - 7571492241261529209553124362610331419
75 - 80523616281612151052721722139402812
80 - 8525187127513852091113761486
85 and upwards101976133447341174
Summary by Electoral Districts., TABLE XIII.—Showing the Number of Persons, Males and Females, at each period of Age, living in each Electoral District.—continued.
All Ages3,3381,8111,5276,7723,8232,94910,4516,7603,6912,9581,5161,4422,4571,2081,249
Specified Ages3,3001,7731,5276,7723,8232,94910,4276,7403,6872,9581,5161,4422,4571,2081,249
Under 1 year107476019794103279155124804139582830
1 - 2 years76383819811583236119117602832482523
2 - 38447371608080206103103663234602238
3 - 4884147192891031899891724527542925
4 - 5884840149806920311489763541612635
5 - 688474115985741899594824735632637
6 - 79845531817810319787110874245824735
7 - 8925042163659820294108763739753342
8 - 984503417384891868799744430613427
9 - 1089494013763741647292915536784335
10 - 1199465314376671487375925042814734
11 - 1287464113066641467175753837874443
12 - 1396554112962671436479833845623527
13 - 1479384112559661457174824240673037
14 - 15107476011560551316071824537623032
15 - 1686444210646601126052723339653035
16 - 1772432911559561277453844242582731
17 - 1884354911461531489355673334522428
18 - 19754629125794617911663351817502129
19 - 20654025119655424817969452322381721
20 - 21703733141766528220280432023552728
21 - 25215116996213652561,38494843617483911406179
25 - 30200113877584443141,7021,17952316672941527082
30 - 35197119786493952541,13481232217295771457174
35 - 401761007660837922989765424319195961537875
40 - 4519810989414270144583432151194114801195564
45 - 50158100582601728838728710011257551175859
50 - 559650461471004721415361995247795227
55 - 606335289364291409941702941573324
60 - 65522131744034635112914150492227
65 - 70401921882414352312583028522131
70 - 754022182515101596462224352015
75 - 802111109811055201281798
80 - 852014622223222101046
85 and upwards105533119451596
Summary by Electoral Districts., TABLE XIII.—Showing the Number of Persons, Males and Females, at each period of Age, living in each Electoral District—continued.
All Ages4,1522,1751,9771,70487682824,65411,69112,9636,2663,0013,265
Specified Ages4,1522,1751,9771,70487682824,65011,68912,9616,2663,0013,265
Under 1 Year12470544221215072522551144767
1 - 2 Years10361423917224292022271015150
2 - 39146454117244642202441176849
3 - 410966435329244782222561195564
4 - 511462523921184762502261367462
5 - 612756715331224912332581387464
6 - 79150414322215702912791386474
7 - 811855634124175712922791617883
8 - 910956536137245902853051467472
9 - 1011353604621255622842781608377
10 - 119945545222305912763151718388
11 - 1210753544824245602612991589266
12 - 1310350535426285752723031839192
13 - 1410860484921285812852961508783
14 - 1510152494421235752782971648381
15 - 169557384527185342452891668779
16 - 1711059512916135772693081718289
17 - 189850484115265332283051467769
18 - 198949403217155462492971365680
19 - 207339343118135312422891355679
20 - 217838403216165252302951223785
21 - 2527414113311252602,1181,0181,100400165235
25 - 3028013314710856522,0529761,076372154218
30 - 3526112014110559461,741831910367159208
35 - 4025613811810253491,697819878418190228
40 - 45239142977933461,464700764372162210
45 - 5016992776027331,080519561270133137
50 - 551488167664026846390456225117108
55 - 6010453513715226803093711456580
60 - 658248343619175612373241536885
65 - 705524313221114591992601325973
70 - 75502921251783311471841578473
75 - 8040251515105212981141107139
80 - 85281711981955243734726
85 and upwards65133482820402812
Summary by Electoral Districts., TABLE XIII.—Showing the Number of Persons, Males and Females, at each period of Age, living in each Electoral District—continued.
Ages.Kingborough.Queenborough.New Norfolk.Franklin.
All Ages4,8302,5592,2714,2481,9672,2814,7642,5232,2414,3262,3901,936
Specified Ages4,8302,5592,2714,2481,9672,2814,7402,5082,2324,3252,3891,936
Under 1 Year1438162101554612564611145559
1 - 212658688042381055946995148
2 - 311864548146359954451085751
3 - 4128695993534010748591166947
4 - 5117704785404511152591256461
5 - 61327656102584411756611125953
6 - 7118635599603911665511377166
7 - 81226656116684811252601097138
8 - 91285573102574511662541428359
9 - 10135736299504912263591316665
10 - 111427369103535010345581176651
11 - 12126626494425212065551186553
12 - 131417566104554911157541156352
13 - 14108476193444912661651056144
14 - 151246361114575710955541347856
15 - 16121724995504512064561096247
16 - 17145757012456688944451145955
17 - 1811561549638589451431095950
18 - 1911367461064660875037895831
19 - 2010956538732551004951924448
20 - 211004753942965703238703535
21 - 25304144160311127184332176156265143122
25 - 30353187166321119202319178141265150115
30 - 35273157116304126178307174133268156112
35 - 40290161129273136137287160127269151118
40 - 45281154127237101136284143141266130136
45 - 5016810365171739822011011017811266
50 - 5513664721406674179108711176453
55 - 60100475311145661316467704228
60 - 6587404710740671397960663135
65 - 708037488335481015348754035
70 - 75744430633924824834583127
75 - 80483216281612574314372512
80 - 851712522111129181117125
85 and upwards8449271468963



Date of Enumeration, 31st March, 1901.


I. Return showing Married and Single at the last Eight Censuses

II. Return showing Ages and Conjugal Condition, also Proportions per 100

III. Return showing Proportion per 1000 of Persons married at different Age Periods, also Proportion to Total Population of Marriageable Age

IV. Return showing Number of Unmarried Persons, Males and Females, Husbands and Wives, Widowers and Widows, with Proportions per cent

V. Return showing Bachelors and Spinsters, Husbands and Wives, the Proportions per cent., and the Numbers in excess in the case of each Sex

VI. Return showing Conjugal Condition of Males and Females at different Ages in each District

VII. Return showing the Number, Birth-places, Religions, and Occupations of Divorced Persons

VIII. Return showing the Number of Families and Number of Husbands and Wives absent

IX., X., XI., XII. Returns showing respective Ages of Husbands and Wives

Condition at successive Censuses. TABLE I.—Married and Single at the last Eight Census Periods.
Census Periods.Persons.Males.Females.

NOTE.—The widowed, the unspecified, and the divorced are considered in this table as Single.

The Returns under the Census of 1841 are not included, as the figures are not to be relied upon.

In 1847 there were 2246 military, women and children, and 3739 male convicts on public works, not included in this table.

In 1851 there were 958 military, women and children, and 568 male convicts on public works, not included.

TABLE II.—Showing the Number of Unmarried, Married, and Widowed Males and Females in the Population at different Ages, also the Proportion per 100 to the Total Number of each Sex at each Quinquennial Period of Age.
Ages.Numerical.Centesimal Proportion.
All.Married.Widowed.Never Married.Married.Widowed.Never Married.
All Ages172,47589,62482,851
Specified condition172,04489,31982,72525,80725,4602,5604,67260,95252,59328.8930.782.865.6568.2563.57
Specified Ages & condition171,96589,25782,70825,79225,4492,5584,67160,90752,58828.8930.782.865.6568.2563.57
Specified, under 15 years64,02532,51131,51432,51131,514100.00100.00
15 years and over108,01956,80851,21125,80725,4602,5604,67228,44121,07945.4349.724.509.1250.0741.16
45 years and over26,29614,06812,22810,1107,2492,0203,8811,9381,09871.8859.2814.353.1713.778.98
Under 5 years20,86510,70210,16310,70210,163100.00100.00
85 and over340196144791295120221240.318.3348.4783.3411.228.33

NOTE.—The divorced are considered in this table as single.

Married, 1901—Proportions.TABLE III.—Proportions per 1000 of Persons married at the different Quinquennial Age-periods to the whole Married Population ; also Proportion to Total Population of marriageable Age.
Age-periods.Number of Married Persons.Proportion per 1000.
To total Married Population.To total marriageable Population of 15 and over.
15 - 203526.863.24
20 - 253,30364.4630.45
25 - 306,451125.8059.48
30 - 357,814152.4972.04
35 - 408,424164.4177.69
40 - 457,564147.6569.75
45 - 505,306103.6148.93
50 - 553,82874.7135.30
55 - 602,74553.5725.32
60 - 652,13441.6519.68
65 - 701,47528.7813.61
70 - 7597018.948.94
75 - 804959.664.56
80 - 852895.642.66
85 and over911.770.83
Not specified26
Number and Proportions Per Cent., TABLE VI.—Number of Unmarried Persons, distinguishing Males under 20, and of and over 20, and Females under 15, and of and over 15, years of age ; the Number of Husbands and Wives, Widowers and Widows, of all ages, with the Proportion per cent. of the Unmarried, Married, and Widowed in every 100 persons living, according to the Census of 31st March, 1901.
Total of all Conditions.Unmarried.Husbands and Wives.Widowers and Widows.Divorced.Condition Unknown.Proportion to every 100 Persons of the respective Sexes at all Ages.
All Ages.Males under 20. Females under 15.Males of and over 20. Females of and over 15.Unmarried.Husbands and Wives.Widowed.Divorced.
Married and Unmarried.—Number and Proportions per cent., TABLE V.—Number of Bachelors of 20 years old and upwards, and the Number of Spinsters of 15 years old and upwards, the excess of Bachelors over Spinsters or Spinsters over Bachelors, the Proportion of Bachelors to every 100 Spinsters or Spinsters to every 100 Bachelors ; the Number of Husbands and Wives, the excess of Husbands over Wives or Wives over Husbands, the Proportion of Husbands to every 100 Wives or Wives to every 100 Husbands, in each Electoral District and the whole State, at the Census of 31st March, 1901.
Electoral District.Bachelors and Spinsters.Husbands and Wives.
Bachelors of 20 and upwards.Spinsters of 15 and upwards.Excess of Bachelors over Spinsters.Excess of Spinsters over Bachelors.Proportion of Bachelors to every 100 Spinsters.Proportion of Spinsters to every 100 Bachelors.Number of Husbands.Number of Wives.Excess of Husbands over Wives.Excess of Wives over Husbands.Proportion of Husbands to every 100 Wives.Proportion of Wives to every 100 Husbands.
The whole State18,99321,0522,05990.25110.7825,80725,460347101.3598.66
City of Hobart2,4514,0441,59360.61165.003,6823,7628097.88102.19
City of Launceston1,5252,9921,46750.96196.202,6562,85119593.16107.33
C&bell Town2123018970.42141.993473416101.7598.28
Devon West6396981100.0199.841,1031,08023104.6097.92
George Town31951719661.70162.087658084394.70105.62
New Norfolk4304411197.52102.577067342896.19103.95
Electoral Districts., TABLE VI.—Showing the Total Conjugal Condition of Males and Females of different Ages.
Electoral Districts.All Ages.Under 14.14 - 15.15 - 16.16 - 17.17 - 18.18 - 19.19 - 20.20 - 21.21 - 25.25 - 30.30 - 35.35 - 40.40 - 45.45 - 50.50 - 55.55 - 60.60 - 65.65 - 70.70 - 75.75 - 80.80 - 85.85 and upwards.Unspecified.
The whole State:
Evandale :
Fingal :
Electoral Districts., TABLE VI.—Showing the Total Conjugal Condition of Males and Females of different Ages in each District.—continued.
Electoral Districts.All Ages.Under 14.14 - 15.15 - 16.16 - 17.17 - 18.18 - 19.19 - 20.20 - 21.21 - 25.25 - 30.30 - 35.35 - 40.40 - 45.45 - 50.50 - 55.55 - 60.60 - 65.65 - 70.70 - 75.75 - 80.80 - 85.85 and upwards.Unspecified.
Launcheston :
George Town.
Electoral Districts., TABLE VI.—Showing the Total Conjugal Condition of Males and Females of different Ages in each District.—continued.
Electoral Districts.All Ages.Under 14.14 - 15.15 - 16.16 - 17.17 - 18.18 - 19.19 - 20.20 - 21.21 - 25.25 - 30.30 - 35.35 - 40.40 - 45.45 - 50.50 - 55.55 - 60.60 - 65.65 - 70.70 - 75.75 - 80.80 - 85.85 and upwards.Unspecified.