Pritned by Authority at the Government Press.



4th paragraph, 4th line for " 40 per cent." read " 43."

4th paragraph, 4th line for " £56,214." read " £56,792."

4th paragraph, 4th line for " 155 per cent." read " 156."

6th paragraph, 1st line for " £18,769." read " £13,871."

6th paragraph, 2nd line for " £10,076." read " £9613."

6th paragraph, 2nd line for " £24,845." read " £23,484."




On the 31st December, 1859.


IN reporting on the Statistics of the Colony of Western Australia for the Year 1859, I am happy in being enabled to state that a marked prosperity attaches to every Interest therein

The Farmer finds a steady and remunerative market for his produce—the Grazier for his stock, and the Merchant and Trader equally prosper in increased business. Exports have greatly increased, and the balance of Trade is largely in favor of the Colony.

This is the first Report I have made in which I can state that all despondency has disappeared as to the prospects of the Colony, as up to this time there were always those who took a gloomy view of those prospects, but which gloom has been dispelled by unmistakeable advance, and those who had acquired a habit of viewing despondingly every thing relating to Western Australia, are now obliged to be silent on that point, or admit a change of opinion.

As compared with 1854, the year when the last Census was taken, the increase of the Population has been 3094, or 26.34 per cent., that of Males 1743 or 22.40 per cent., and of Females 1351 or 34.08 per cent. The increase of the Colonial Revenue has been £14,593, or nearly 40 per cent. ; of Exports £56,214 or 155 per cent., at the same time that the Imperial Expenditure has decreased £40,525, or about 30 per cent., while the Colonial Debt has been reduced from £12,939 in 1855 to £1750, in 1859.

Since 1854 but four Settlers with Capital arrived in the Colony, yet the number of Agricultural laborers has increased by 1069—the number of Farmers who employ laborers has increased 87—and the increase in the number of Farmers who do not employ labor has been 110.

The increase of Cultivated lands has been 13,769 acres ; of lands Fallowed and Cleared ready for Cultivation 10,076—in all 24,845 acres.

The Mercantile Interest is also in a very healthy state.

In 1854 the Average Weekly Amount of Liabilities of the Western Australian Bank was £49000, of Assets £60274 ; in 1859 these were £61000, and £74659, shewing an increase in Assets of £14425 or 22 per cent. and of Liabilities of £12000, or 24.5 per cent.

And whereas in 1854 the Exports and Imperial Expenditure or money brought into the Colony exceeded the Imports or money taken out of the Colony by £40582, in 1859—the former exceeded the latter by £59,216 ; although the Imperial Expenditure in 1859 was £40,525 less than in 1854.


On the 31st December 1859, the Total Population was 14,837, of whom 9522 were Males and 5315 were Females.

Under 15 years of age there were 2410 males and 2444 females or 4854 in all—of 15 years of age and upwards there were 9983 of whom 7112 were males and 2871 were females : there were 2698 married men and 2070 married women ; 4414 single adult* men to 801 single adult women.

In each 100 of whole Population64.1735.8347.9319.3567.2818.1913.9632.1529.755.3935.14
In each 100 of Males74.6923.3446.35
In each 100 of Females54.0138.9515.06
In each 100 of Adult Males37.9362.07
In each 100 of Adult Females72.127.9

The total increase of the population since 1854 has been 3094 or 26.34 per cent., being an Annual Average increase of 5.27 per cent. ; of this 1743 were males, and 1351 females, the increase of the former being 22.40 per cent., of the latter 34.08 per cent.

The increase of Adult males has been 964 or 15.63 per cent. ; and of Adult females 674 or 30.65 per cent ; the total Adult increase being 1638, or 19.63 per cent.

The increase in the various Districts, (including Military, Prisoners, and 50 Ticket-of-Leave Men on the hands of Government, 29 of whom were in Hospital, and 21 in Depot) has been—

Deduct decrease in Plantagenet93598
Total increase1,7431,3513,09422.4034.0826.34
[* By adult is meant of 15 years of age and upwards.]

On 31st December, 1859, there were 2010 married men living with their wives, and 688 whose wives were not in the Colony, or 2698 married men in all ; 2010 married women living with their husbands, and 60 whose husbands were not in the Colony, or 2070 married women in all.

There were 4414 single adult men and 801 single adult women : deducting from these, monks, nuns, and others too old to marry there were 4297 marriageable single men to 747 marriageable single women, or 100 males to about 18 women, or 100 women to about 576 males. Add to these the 638 married men whose wives were not in the Colony ; there were 4935 males to 747 females or 100 males to about 15 females, or 100 females to about 662 males, and this last is the proportion of the sexes to be dealt with.

The last calculation gives the following District return :—

Deduct excess of non-marriageable single males over non-marriageable single females63
Total excess of males4,18815
Free Civilians1,594361,6301,4673,097
Total who arrived in the Colony as free men, or who was born therein1,690361,7261,5403,266
Expirees and Conditional Pardon Men2461544007731,173
Ticket-of-Leave Men641742381,4281,666
Total who arrived in the Colony as Prisoners or Ticket-of-Leave Men3206529722,8743,846
[* By Military is meant the Companies of the 12th Regiment and Royal Engineers, the Pensioners being permanently resident are included in the General Population.]

Thus the number of Free marriageable men, without taking into consideration the Bond Population was more than double of the whole of the marriageable females in the Colony.

Distinguishing these classes into Free and Bond, there were 754 more free married male adults than married bond, and 1334 more single bond than free male adults ; and in all 580 more bond than free male adults, which latter is shewn by the following District return:—

In Fremantle there were 157 more Bond than Free male adults. In Perth 36, in Sussex 30, Swan 84, Toodyay 94, Victoria 132, Wellington 4, York 157, there being in Plantagenet 76 more Free Male Adults than Bond, and in Murray 58 more Free Male Adults than Bond.

Under 1263313567
Under 51,1251,1552,280
Under 152,4102,4444,854
Under 212,9733,0686,041
21 and upwards6,5492,2478,796
80 and upwards224
70 and upwards261743
60 and upwards16469233
50 and upwards716216932
40 and upwards1,8255951,420
30 and upwards4,1971,2395,436

Not including Military, Prisoners, or Ticket-of-Leave Men in Depot, the ages of married and single were—

Above 15 and Under 21.Married2113115
Above 15 and Under 40.Married1,2461,4292,675
Above 40.Married1,0115451,556

As classed under Free and Bond, the ages, including all classes, were:—

MALES.15 TO 2121 TO 3030 TO 4040 TO 5050 TO 6060 AND UPWARDS.

The principal fact calling for attention in the foregoing statistics is the disproportion of the sexes, and in stating that there are 4297 marriageable men including Prisoners, or 3290 men not including them, to 747 marriageable women, we must in the first place consider one very

important point, and that is, there are nearly 400 single Immigrant girls in the Colony, very few of whom would object to marry a respectable man whether of one class or the other, who might be enable to keep a wife in some degree of comfort.

The question therefore arises, how is it, if there be so many of these men who wish to marry that such a number of Immigrant women are still single.

I must here admit that I have always viewed the disproportion of the sexes with great alarm, and now that I have the results of the Census of 1859 before me ; although much of that alarm appears to me to have been groundless, still the disproportion is much greater than desirable, and had Convicts arrived at the rate they were expected, namely 1000 a year, had not female immigration proportionably increased, great and serious evils must have resulted ; as the mere immigration of the number of single women who could have been absorbed in private service would not have preserved anything like a due proportion of the sexes.

And even as things are at present, how an Immigration of single women is to be carried out so as to reduce the existing disproportion of males is a subject of great perplexity, as if Free Female Immigrants be not confined to the number who could find employment in private service, which at present at the most is not more than 250 in the year, it entails the necessity of keeping up Depots of unemployed girls, the evil of which is that it engenders in them habits of idleness ; and idleness and temptation might induce many to wander from the paths of rectitude.

I know not of any employment for them in Depot, and there is no power to prevent them leaving it when they please, even had the Authorities the knowledge that they left it to enter a life of immorality—the women are Free Immigrants, and they cannot be made Prisoners.

I speak from many years experience as Immigration Officer, when I state that it is most injurious to Female Immigrants to be any length of time idling in the Government Depots—wandering about the Town on afternoons, exposed to temptation from those (and there are many such) who would lead them astray ; and moreover they form acquaintances in the town—the remembrance of whom makes many of them discontented with Country life, and even with the discipline those who leave their places in the Country and return to Depot are subjected to, many still do so—but they are only those who have been left a sufficient length of time in Depot to have acquired a liking for Town life, and a desire to imitate the ridiculous display in dress, so conspicuous in the servant girls in Perth and Fremantle.

The question to be solved is how to increase the Female Immigration to the Colony to the benefit of the Immigrants and the Colony at large,—a question I admit I am quite unable to answer satisfactorily although it is my opinion that the injury inflicted on the morality of the community by the introduction of a larger number of Females than could be readily employed in Private service however objectionable it may be, is very preferable to the crime engendered by the association of a number of Men together without a due proportion of Females.


The Religious Denominations on 31st December, 1859 were, Church of England, 9942 ; Wesleyans, 835 ; Independents, 385 ; other Protestants, 270 ; total Protestants, 11432 ; Church of Rome, 3354 ; Jews, Mahometans and Pagans, 51 ; of these there were :—

Church of EnglandWesleyansIndependentsOther ProtestantsTotal ProtestantsChurch of RomeJews, Mahometans Pagans
General Population9,03082725727010,3842,87547
Prisoners and Ticket-of Leave Men in Depot6806803734

As compared with the year 1854, not including Prisoners or Ticket-of Leave Men in Depot, there were :—

Increase per cent.39.1241.7633.7646.55
Decrease per cent.17.14
The following Table shews the per centage of the Religious Denominations in the Colony :—
Of each Church65.7934.2154.545.453.3940.6164.635.462.6137.39
Of Male Population68.694.784.1977.5622.05
Of Female Population63.987.145.0476.1323.09
Of Total Population675.634.4277.0522.6

And there are also 47 Jews, Mahometans and Pagans—viz. 33 males and 14 females.

With regard to the number of Protestants, although they can be depended on in the aggregate, they cannot be entirely under their distinctive heads, as many Presbyterians and other Dissenters not having their own Ministers here, attend other Protestant Churches in which they are therefore classed.

There are in the Colony eleven Ministers of the Church of England performing parochial duties, 2 Wesleyan Ministers, 2 Independent Ministers, and 15 of the Church of Rome, and although this gives but an average charge of 904 persons to each Church of England Minister, 418 to each Wesleyan, 193 to each Independent, and 224 to each Minister of the Church of Rome ; it must be borne in mind that the persons forming these Congregations are scattered over a Country of about 600 miles in length by about 100 in breadth.

The total Church accommodation for the Members of the Church of England is about 3000 sittings for nearly 10,000 persons, for the Wesleyans and other Protestants about 900, for about 1500 people, and for the Roman Catholics, about 800 for about 3500 people.


The following Table shows the Country of Birth of the Population not including Military and their families, Prisoners and Ticket-of-Leave Men in Depot.


Of the whole Male Population of 9522, on 31st December, 1859, 2335, or about 24 per cent. were born in the Colony, 293 or about 3 per cent. arrived as Military and their sons ; 3048, or about 32 per cent. arrived as Free Immigrants ; and 3846 or about 41 per cent. were sent here as Convicts, and of the whole Female Population 2279, or 43 per cent. were born in the Colony, and 3036 or 57 per cent. were Immigrants.


The occupations of the male population on 31st December, 1859, were :—Farming and Grazing, 3066 ; Trade, 378, Mechanics, Artizans, &c. 867 ; Medical Profession 12 ; Legal Profession 3 ; Clergymen 32 ; Government Civil Service 235 ; Laborers, not Agricultural 1016 ; Male Domestic Servants 207 ; Seamen 76 ; Gardeners 47 ; Schoolmasters 20 ; Veterinary Surgeons 2, and No Occupation, 10 ; Military 169 ; Prisoners 1007, and Ticket-of-Leave Men in Depot 21, and in Hospital 29.

There were also 356 Females domestic servants.

The increase on 1854 has been—

Agricultural and Grazing,1307, or about75 per cent.
Trad and Commerce,196, or about106 per cent
Mechanics, Artizans, &c.,363, or about72 per cent
Laborers, not Agricultural, and Male Domestic Servants,247, or about25 per cent
Female Domestic Servants104, or about42 per cent

Since 1854, 1338 Free Male Adult Immigrants have arrived in the Colony, and the Emigration of Adult Males, Free, Expirees and Conditional Pardon Men has been 1874, making an excess of Emigration of 536 Free Male Adults.

The following Table shows the Immigration and Emigration from the Colony since 1854 :—

Immigration.Emigration.Excess of Immigration.Excess of Emigration.
Year.Excess of Immigration.Excess of Emigration.

Increase Females 558

Decrease Males 536

Year.Excess Immigration.Excess Emigration.

The number of Convicts who have arrived in the Colony since 1854 has been 2368 ; therefore since the 31st December, 1854 the total excess of Immigration over Emigration has been, Males, 1732, and Females 558.

The total number of Convicts who have arrived in the Colony since it was made a Penal Settlement is about 5000.

It will be here seen that in 1859, the tide of Emigration had comparatively dwindled down to a very small number, and this is a very favourable fact in the progress of Western Australia as showing the increased demand for labor and greater inducements to remain in the Colony.

That many of the Convicts who have filled respectable situations in life, will leave the Colony so soon as they obtain their Conditional Pardons is to be expected, as they naturally would wish to leave a place where the fact of their having been Convicts is patent to all, for other spots where their former delinquencies might not be known.


Exclusive of Military, Prisoners and Ticket-of-Leave Men in Depot, of the 11,134 persons of 5 years of age and upwards in the Colony on 31st December, 1859, (viz. 7113 males and 4021 females) 6946 or 62.5 per cent. could read and write ; 1176 or 10.4 per cent. could read only, and 8122 or 72.95 per cent. could read ; thus 4188 or 37.61 per cent could not write ; and 3012 or 27.05 per cent. could neither read nor write.

Of the 7113 males above 5 years of age and upwards, 4651 or 65.39 per cent. could read and write, 637 or 8.95 per cent. could read only, and 5288 or 74.35 per cent. could read ; thus 2462 or 34.61 per cent. could not write, and 1825 or 25.65 could neither read nor write.

Of the 4021 females above 5 years of age, 2295 or 57.09 per cent. could read and write, 539 or 13.4 per cent, could read only, and 2834 or 70.5 per cent. could read ; thus 1726 or 42.91 per cent. could not write, and 1187 or 29.5 per cent. neither read or write.

Thus out of every 100 there were about—

Who could read and write.Who could read only.Who could read.Who could not write.Who could neither read nor write.


But little that is satisfactory can be said with regard to the Natives—they are gradually disappearing before the advance of the White man, their Civilization taking too much the form of acquiring many of the European's bad habits and but few of his good ones—they learn to drink and smoke, and Immorality in their Women has now become an habitual custom,

regarded as a matter of course by their husbands and parents. Many philanthropic attempts have been made, and much money expended in attempting to reclaim these people, but with the two exceptional cases of the few children with the Sisters of Mercy at Perth, and those under the care of Mrs. Camfield at Albany, they have all failed.

In 1842 the number of Aborigines frequenting the Settled Districts of Perth, Fremantle, Swan, Avon, Wellington, Sussex and Albany was estimated at about 1200, whereas at the present time they are not supposed to exceed 800, and this mainly arises from the gross immorality of the women preventing their bearing children ; there may be, and doubtless are many other causes, but this is the chief one.

It may be asked, is it not possible to reclaim these people—my experience among them for many years in nearly every part of the Colony tells me it is not, unless taken as Children before they have acquired a love for their wild free life ; and from the objection of the parents generally to give up their children to the White Man, but little good can be done in that way—and even of those who had been brought up in this manner by the Wesleyan Mission from 1840 to 1845, but very few have not taken to their former uncivilized state, the same as if they had never known better things.

Many of the Aborigines are civilized to the extent of becoming servants to the White Men so long as it suits their tastes, but very few of these remain permanently under restraint, but twice in the year generally return to their Bush Friends and Savage Life, I suppose as a kind of holiday, when they need not acknowledge any master—but this class have acquired too great a liking for bread to be long away from the means of obtaining it, and I believe that those who do frequent the White Man's dwellings do so merely for the purpose of gratifying their appetites, and not from any conviction of the superiority of the European in any other way than in the power of raising and obtaining food.

But 176 Males and 69 Females of the Aboriginal tribes are returned as in the permanent employ of the settlers, and of these 31 men and 12 women are attached to the Roman Catholic Mission in the Victoria Plains ; 4 boys and 14 girls are in the Institution at Albany, leaving but 141 Men and 43 Women actually employed by the settlers.


The Imperial Expenditure in 1859 was £92,070 ; £34,007 being for Military Services including Amount drawn by Staff Officer of Pensioners for Pensioners, and £58063 for Civil Services ; this is a reduction of £40,525 on 1854, arising from the completion of Imperial Buildings, and the reduced price of provisions.

The total Expenditure under this head since the introduction of Convicts in 1850, has been—

Other Civil Services6,8966,9607,3728,2302,9362,0371877,4354,194

Thus nearly One Million of Money has been expended in the Colony from Imperial Funds since Western Australia was made a Penal Settlement.

In 1859 there were 2200 of all occupations who were engaged on their own account, and not in employ as servants, laborers, &c. ; among these the Imperial Expenditure was nearly £42 per head ; of this Expenditure of £90,6061, about £450000 has been paid for pay and allowances, including the amount received by Pensioners, about £250000 for provisions produced in the Colony : and £206000 for imported provisions and stores.

I may here state to show what the introduction of Convicts has done for the Colony, that—

THE TOTAL AMOUNT OFFor the 21 years previously to their introduction—that is from 1329 to 1849 inclusive.For the 10 years since their introduction—that is from 1850 to 1859 inclusive.
The Imperial Expenditure was£375,264£905,971
The Colonial Revenue was£123,813340,753
The Exports£175,843463,184
The Tonnage of Ships arrivingTons 223,758Tons 374,432
No. of Acres cultivatedAcres 61,442Acres 137,108
Of Imperial Expenditure£17,870£90,597407
Of Colonial Revenue£5,896£34,075480
Of Exports£8,37446,318453
The tonnage of Ships arrivingTons 10,655Tons 37,443251
The No. of Acres cultivatedAcres 2,92613,711368


The Colonial Revenue in 1859, was £48,754, being an increase of £14,573, or 42.6 per cent. on that for 1854.

The increase in Customs has been £6608 or 29.75 per cent. ; on Land Revenue, £5012, or 85.67 per cent. ; on Harbor Duties, £800, or 172.78 per cent. ; on Licenses for Public Houses, &c., £1090 or 75.53 per cent. ; on Postage, £1110 or 77.29 per cent.

Colonial Revenue.
CUSTOMS—Duty on Spirits12,41610,58214,2198,16111,13513,492
TOTAL ON SPIRITS, WINE, AND BEER13,49511,53715,7129,18113,87415,186
AD VALOREM5,2463,8314,5663,6565,4924,650
Warehoue Rent, &c.358309433233595470
Kangaroo Skins, &c.1115214219622
Total Customs22,24520,94026,60616,98626,96128,853
LAND SALES2,7593,9253,4842,1994,3844,165
LAND Rent55101543
Depasturing Licenses and Lesses2,8133,0173,4203,6874,1014,721
Tillage Leases45114228302604712
Timber Licenses7213192202257360
Transfer Duties1068812413083128
Total Land5,8507,3457,3486,96010,09610,862
Colonial Revenue,—continued.
Harbor Dues4636097667029731,263
Auction Duties254342372401254429
Judicial Fines and Fees744720971822772937
Fees of Office463499553435384381
Sale of Government Property267393630298228127
Miscellaneous and Special74020215619343125
Rents exclusive of Land12910810897106121
Imperial Aid7,5239,0878,1257,3757,7649,191
Grand Total41,68443,52950,22839,00852,80357,945

On taking a review of the Customs Revenue for the last 10 years, commencing from the year 1850, when the Convicts were first introduced, it will be seen that there has been a steady progression from £7803 in that year to £28,853 in 1859 ; but there are some peculiarities appearing on the face of these tabular returns which require notice and explanation.

The greatest increase appears to have been made in the Revenue of the first five years ending 1854, when it reached the sum of £22,245, and this is mainly attributable to the impetus given to the general Trade and Commerce of the Colony by the aid of Convict labor, and a large Imperial Expenditure, and the reaction which took place on the possession of these advantages from a state of despondency to one of energy and hope naturally led to speculations and somewhat excessive importations which had obtained their culminating point in 1854—for a considerable reduction took place in the succeeding year, and that in the face of specific duties on Beer, Tea, Sugar and Coffee. The next striking peculiarity is the difference of Revenue between the years 1856 and 1857, there being a falling off of nearly £10,000 in the latter year. During that year many circumstances had tended to cast a gloom over the prospects of the Colony, especially the doubt and uncertainty of the duration of the Convict system, and a depressing effect was produced on the general prosperity. But the principal cause of the difference, arose from the alteration of the scale of Import duties in July 1856, on which occasion, holders of Spirits, Wines and Tobacco were permitted to pay duties at the old rate, thus increasing the Revenue of 1856, to the prejudice of the next year, the effect of which may be appreciated by comparing the receipts of the two years, viz., Spirits, £14,219 and £8161 ; Wine, £840, and £288 ; Tobacco, £4226 and £1940.

With reference to the consumption of the several articles which may be distinguished under the head of luxuries in contradistinction from necessaries, the principal items of which are Spirits, Wines, Beer and Tobacco, it may be observed that although the general population has increased from 11,743 in 1854, when the former Census was taken, to 14,837 in 1859, the consumption of these articles has not kept pace with the increase of population as the duties of 1859—although considerably in advance of 1854—do not indicate a larger quantity consumed, due allowance being made for the increased rate of duties, therefore the rate of consumption has been reduced in proportion to the increase, and the reason of this is palpably from the use of Colonial Wine and Beer, which has been produced in large quantities and as will no doubt, with improvement in manufacture, become gradually more in favor and be substituted in a great measure for Spirits and Foreign Wine.


The Colonial Expenditure for 1859 was £45727, being an increase of pound2456 on 1854
Colonial Secretary2,0662,1852,1142,1262,0582,178
Treasurer and Auditor1,0031,2881,2801,2801,2801,280
Survey Department3,7892,8282,2332,2442,3102,347
Public Works7,6287,3365,0025,2874,0757,404
Customs and Revenue1,1181,1721,1781,7351,8221,889
Post Office2,0532,0462,2102,3352,2252,494
Herbor Master1,2501,5281,9011,7941,9471,986
Pensions, &c.542651230404462
Charitable Allowances342294380817698918
Repayment of Debts, Interest, &c.1,6526,0419193,375105
Total Establishments25,55828,35525,89727,77329,04129,851
Exclusive of Establishments18,82520,88521,09317,21918,07825,067
Total as above44,38349,24046,99044,99247,11954,918
Total Colonial36,86040,15338,86537,61739,35545,727
Imperial Aid7,5239,0878,1257,3757,7649,191
Total as above44,38349,24046,99044,99247,11954,918


In 1854 the Expenditure was £2070, and in 1859 £278. This difference arises from the Governor's own salary of £1800 per annum being drawn in England and not therefore appearing as a charge in the books of the Treasurer from which these Returns have been compiled.


The large sum of £5617 in 1859 arises from the sum of £4000 remitted to the Agent General for Current Services, and not classified, and the sum of £1151 on account of Subsidy for Royal Mail Service.


At the close of 1854 the Debts of the Colony stood as follows—in round numbers.

Due to the Commissariat DepartmentPound;3,096
Due to the Imperial Government2,168
Due to the Agent General2,500
Due to the Western Australian Bank3,000
Due to the Debentures Outstanding1,124
Amounting altogether toPound; 11888

Since which date, the two first items have been remitted by the Imperial Government, and the debt due to the Agent General has been defrayed from the Imperial Treasury, and the Items which appear under this head of Payment of Debts since 1854 are for payments of Debentures, or Loans outstanding due to the Western Australian Bank ; so that the old Debts of the Local Government have all been either remitted or paid, and the only amount which now comes under this head is the sum of £1750 due on Debentures recently issued on account of Land surrendered for Episcopal purposes and bearing Interest at 6 per cent.


The value of Imports for 1859 amounted to £125,315, shewing a decrease on 1854 of £2945, made up of £1758 on Clothing ; £1311 Cabinet Ware and Upholstery ; of £4417 on Spirituous and Fermented Liquors and £22427 on Miscellaneous articles, against an increase of £19459 on Tea and Sugar, of £521 on Tobacco ; £2790 on Hardware and Cutlery ; £1099 on Machinery, and £3099 on Miscellaneous Articles.

TABLE of IMPORTS from 1854 to 1859 inclusive.
Batter and Cheese2,0471,5373,2791,8042,1692,734
Fruits, dried1,1738208391,0101,121890
Flour, Meal and Bread12,6046,9907,5953,8147,9903,400
Meats, Salted and Preserved3,4303,0263,9891,5391,5211,492
Oilman's Stores6,6573,5985,6243,8395,5024,512
Total articles of Food40,82136,07132,98828,38943,47644,409
Total Tobacco2,5433,3544,3091,5942,8263,064
Total Spirits6,8857,08010,3866,9685,7135,531
BEER AND CIDER, BOTTLED.4,2241,6012,7341,3564,8431,872
Beer and Cider, draught4,3991,8932,6562,8448,6284,813
Total Beer and Cider8,6233,4945,3904,20013,4716,685
Total, Wine, Spirits and Beer18,36812,28718,41712,20423,48113,951
TABLE of IMPORTS from 1854 to 1859 inclusive.—continued.
Apparel and slops6,7475,3576,5535,9226,8579,040
Boots and Shoes4,4492,3263,4392,7143,8853,067
Drapery, Millinery, &c.26,06421,18023,52517,85726,84623,572
Hats and Bonnets1,1961,4496861,0639591,019
Total Clothing38,45630,31234,20327,55638,54736,698
Apothecaries wares9152574617101,243933
Bags and Sacks4016231,0601,5332,030535
Books and Stationery2,2081,2892,7861,0712,2122,178
Cabinet Ware and Upholstery2,5681,6353,0291,1281,8171,257
Carts and Carriages500103510327323278
Deals and Timber7551,2469146701,023352
Earthenware and Glass1,7311,1801,9501,3301,8981,059
Hardware and Cutlery1,2121,4492,1711,7343,0604,002
Iron and Ironware3,5985,3535,4644,4217,0014,813
Mats and Baskets7212566101185243
Oils, Colors, &c.825398289168934208
Powder and Shot511311973319402978
Saddlery and Harness1,8947898268371,3161,124
Soap and Candles3,4231,8692,9392,2894,2673,047
Tools and Implements1,7762,2495,620179256136
Wood Goods76218210103505801
All other articles1,6021,0411,4722,4882,1252,158
TOTAL IMPORTS128,260105,320122,93849,532144,932125,315

Taking the Imported quantities at the average market prices, the following amounts have been expended on Tobacco, Spirits and Fermented liquors during the last ten years :—

ON TOBACCO.1850 to 1859 inclusive.Yearly Average.
On Spirits308,80030,880
On Wine44,8604,486
On Beer184,60018,460
Total Wine Spirits and Beer538,26053,826


Pound;614,740, or a yearly average of £61,474

Taking the average of 1858 and 1859, the following consumption appears as Imported


Taking the consumption of Spirituous Liquors to be by the whole of the Men above 21 and one-fifth of the women above 21, and the average consumption thereof by one man, at as much as three women, we have as consumers—

6,549 Men
450 Women equal to150 Men
Total Consumers6,699
Deduct an average of1000 Prisoners

And this would give nearly 30 pints of spirits per annum to each consumer, or about 23 bottles ; and supposing there are 2000 drinkers of Wine, would give also about 26 pints to each, and if there be 5000 Beer drinkers they would have consumed about 153 pints each in the year. Averaging these numbers would give to each person about 210 pints of Spirituous and Fermented liquors, or reducing the whole to the average comparative strength of Beer, would give to each estimated consumer about 400 pints annually ; and this is not taking into consideration the 22000 gallons of Colonial Wine and the quantity of Beer brewed in the Colony, of which latter I cannot form any estimate.

There are several articles of food imported which could well be produced in the Colony.

In 1859 there were imported—

Flour and Biscuit 220 tons, the average retail price of which @ £18 per ton givesPound; 3,960
Butter and Cheese, 54,281 lbs, @ 2s. YYY lb.5,428
Dried Fruits, 8,400 lbs @1s. YYY lb.420
Salt Meats, 116,826 lbs, @ 1s. YYY lb.5,841
Pound; 15,649

There is however a great reduction in the importation of these articles during the three last years as compared with the three previous ones, thus :—

Flour and Biscuit3,300,0002,000,0001,300,000
Butter and Cheese145,000134,00011,000
Dried Fruits60,00053,0007,000
Salt Meats1,272,000451,000821,000

This arises from the increase in Cultivation and Stock thus (the increase of the Population being nearly 27 per cent.)

Wheat, acres5,89713,610131
Vineyards, acres155363134

And in 1859 there were nearly 520,000 lbs. of Salted Pork, Bacon and Hams, cured in the Colony.

There is a very great increase in the importation of Tea, Coffee and Sugar, thus :—

Tea41,816138,163Nearly 3½Nearly 9frac13;

The consumption of Tobacco has not increased in proportion to the Population, thus—

Tobacco manufactured164,00088,000Decrease 76,000
Cigars4,3604,340Decrease 20
Snuff150350Increase 200

This decreased consumption in a great measure arises from the increased price of Tobacco in the three last years, consequent on increased duty and higher cost. Smoking Tobacco in 1854, 1855, and 1856 was retailed here at 2s. 6d. per lb., whereas now the price is from 3s. 9d. to 4s.

There has also been a reduction in the consumption of Rice, arising from the lower price of flour, thus—

Rice imported910,000 lbs.762,000 lbs.148,000 lbs.

The only other Imports necessary to notice are Hardware and Cutlery, and Soap and Candles.

Hardware & Cutlery£19,247£3003110,784
Iron & Ironmongery
Soap and Candles8,2319,6031,372

The importation of Soap would have shewn a much greater amount were it not for the increased and increasing consumption of Soap manufactured in the Colony.

18541859Increase.Increase per cent.


The increase in the value of Exports is the most satisfactory sign of the progress of the Colony.

The increase in 1859 on 1854 was £56,792, or 156 per cent.

Fish, salted15426424
Hides and Skins25410812860939
Hay and Fodder1,04092
Vegetables, Provisions, &c.2151,5445071,6231,8443,567
Wine, Colonial106
Horns and Hoofs70932049
Oil, Whale5912,5302,9262,5203,474608
Whale Bone2383505339721,4871,573
Specimens, Natural History7249045
Sandal Wood2,5257,45517,260
Wood Work3691860
Copper Ore261,0181,9209,53114,122
Lead Ore250135
Wattle Bark4249
Wool exported in lbs.442,881493,073500,996478,486543,504594,665

A great increase appears under the head of Animals ; the total for 1854, 1855 and 1856 being £3,896, and for the last 3 years £18,567 ; this arises from the export of Horses to India.

The Values of the Exportations of other articles have been during the last six years—

Potatoes and Vegetables£2266£6712
Timber and Sandal Wood28,77145,080
Copper and Lead Ore and Lead7,60929,833
And the Total Exports were127,298231,055

The quantity of Wool has not increased in proportion to its value which in 1854, 1855, and 1856 was declared at 1s. per lb., but during the last three years at 1s. 3d. and 1s. 6d. per lb.

The following were the quantities exported :—

1,437,950 lbs.1,616,615 lbs.

And the average yield of Wool per fleece has been—

2 lbs. 9 oz.2 lbs. 6 oz.2 lbs. 7 oz.2 lbs. 7 oz.2 lbs. 8 oz.2 lbs. 9 oz.

The export of Timber is looked forward to as a great source of wealth to the Colony. We possess an almost inexhaustible supply of the " Jarrah," a timber well suited for railway sleepers, ship building, &c., and a demand already exists for this article in South Australia, Singapore, Ceylon, India and the Mauritius, and but little doubt is entertained, that if once properly introduced into Europe it would be extensively used in Ship Building.

Since 1854 about 7000 tons have been exported.

Sandal Wood is also another very profitable export but if continued to be cut in the quantities sent out of the Colony during the last three years, will gradually be used up.

Since 1856 about 3000 tons of this wood has been sent to Singapore.

There are many other woods indigenous to this Colony that require but to be known to soon come into foreign demand—such as the Tuart, the Blue Gum, &c.

The export of Minerals call for some remarks on the Mining Districts of the Colony, which abound with Mineral indications not only as regards Copper and Lead, but also Gold ; and periodically the excitement of the Public is raised to fever heat by the reports of some new discoveries. The Geological features of several portions of the Territory are so very similar to the Gold producing districts of Victoria, as to render these reports highly probable, and gold has already been found, but not in sufficient quantities to make a workable field of operations.

The Victoria or Champion Bay District not only abounds with indications of the richest description, but valuable lodes of Copper and Lead have been discovered, and several of them have been developed by operations more or less extensive ; an area of 60 or 70 miles square is intersected by an innumerable quantity of Lodes of the Riches description of Ore, principally of Copper.

The attention of the public was at a very early period of the Colony's history drawn to this district by the highly favorable report made of it by Sir George (then Lieutenant) Grey, when he passed along the seaboard on his perilous retreat from Shark's Bay, after the wreck of his Boats ; and subsequently when he became Governor of South Australia, he stated that after visiting the Mining Districts of that place he felt more and more convinced that the neighbourhood of Champion Bay would eventually turn out to be a very rich Mineral Country. The distance of the place caused it to be unoccupied for some years, and it is only since 1856 that the extent and value of its Mineral Wealth could be in any way appreciated. The discoveries of Mineral lodes have almost invariably been made by Shepherds, and not from any scientific or systematic investigation. The number of these lodes is almost beyond belief, and it would be hazardous to state any opinion of their extent.


The Cultivation in 1859 was 13,610 Acres Wheat ; 4029 Barley ; 617 Oats ; 85 Maize, Beans, &c. ; 5438 Hay and Green Crop ; 574 Kitchen Garden ; 398 Potatoes and Onions ; 363 Vineyard ; 3238 Fallowed, and 8078 cleared for Cultivation ; in all 36430 Acres.

The increase of Cultivation, 1859 on 1854 has been :—

Increase of Wheat,.7713 acres or about131 per cent.
Increase of Barley,2490 acres or about162 per cent.
Increase of Oats,282 acres or about84 per cent.
Increase of Rye,503 acres or about246 per cent.
Increase of Maize and Beans, &c.24 acres or about40 per cent
Increase Potatoes and Onions,207 acres or about94 per cent
Increase of Hay and Green Crop2,202 acres or about68 per cent
Increase of Vineyard208 acres or about134 per cent
Increase of Kitchen Garden232 acres or about68 per cent
Total13,871 acres.
Fallow and Cleared9,613
Total increase23,484 or171 per cent.

The increase in Districts has been,—

Increase in Acres.Acres.

With respect to the yield of Wheat in 1859, averaging the Crop at the low net yield of 12 bushels to the acre gives 163320 bushels ; and, supposing each person in the population of 14837 consumes 8 bushels per annum or 118696 bushels, and allowing 24,000 bushels for seed leaves a surplus of 20624 bushels, which, at 45 bushels to the ton of 2000 lbs., equals nearly 459 tons.

With regard to Agriculture in 1854, there were 1395 employed therein on 13715 acres of cultivated land (including fallowed and cleared) or nearly 10 acres to each man, in 1859 there were 2637 employed on 37,137 acres or about 14 acres to each man.

Western Australia has great capabilities for the production of grain, especially in the Northern Districts, where little or no outlay is necessary for clearing ; I allude more particularly to the Greenough Flats ; there is also a very large extent of alluvial flats in the Southern Districts not to be surpassed for the growth of corn, by any land in the Colony.

During 1859, 20833 gallons of Colonial Wine were made and 18952 lbs. of Dried Fruits.

The cultivation of Vineyards is gradually on the increase, and there is every reason to believe that Western Australia is well adapted for the growth of the Vine and will become an Exporting Wine Country. At the present time Light Wines are produced that would find a ready market in England, and it is expected that when persons are introduced into the Colony who understand the Manufacture of Wine, the Western Australian Wines will prove most remunerative to the Vineyard Proprietors in the Colony.


The number of Stock in 1859, was :—


Shewing an increase on 1854 of—

Per cent. about805336232
Average annual per centage1610.67.246.4

The consumption of Stock for food so far as can be ascertained was in 1859—


and 517000 lbs. of Pork, Bacon and Hams salted and cured in the Colony.

Averaging Cattle at 500 lbs., and Sheep at 40 lbs., with the addition of Colonial Pork as above, together with 117000 lbs. of imported meats, this would give the annual consumption in 1858, 5,344,000.

Taking the number of Meat consumers to be 14000, this gives the very large daily average of 11b. 2 oz. to each person, but then a considerable portion of this is taken by the Ships in the various ports.

I may mention here that 5,242,500 acres are leased as Stock Runs, to which add say, at least 1,300,000 acres in Fee Simple not cultivated, and capable of feeding stock, gives 6,543,500 acres, and averaging 300 acres as capable of feeding 20 Sheep, 4 head of Cattle, and 1 Horse, there is at present under Fee and Lease, sufficient run for nearly 436,000 Sheep, 88,000 Cattle, and 22,000 Horses.


The following table shews the sale of Crown Lands from 1854 to 1859, inclusive:—

Cockburn Sound7022720772127192

Thus of the 8313 acres purchased during the last three years, 5034 acres or 60 per cent. were in Victoria, and 1316 acres or 16 per cent. in York and Toodyay Districts.

In remarking on the granting and purchase of Crown Lands, I would take the opportunity of referring to all the Regulations under which Lands have been granted and sold in Western Australia, the Returns having been kindly furnished me by Mr. Hillman, the Acting Surveyor General.

In 1827, Sir James Stirling (then Capt. Stirling, R.N.) made so favorable a report of the capabilities of the Country adjacent to the Swan River that the Home Government who had been previously impressed with the importance of forming a settlement on the West Coast of the Australian continent, determined to do so in that vicinity, but from the objection people had to emigrate thereto, the Authorities were obliged to hold out inducements in the granting of land as favorable as they imagined they well could be, and the first regulations under Colonial Circular A, dated 5th December, 1828 were to the effect that although it was the intention of Her Majesty's Government to form a settlement on the West Coast of Australia, they did not intend to incur any expense in conveying settlers, or in supplying them with necessaries after their arrival ; such persons however, as might be prepared to proceed there at their own cost before the end of the year 1829, in parties comprehending a proportion of not less than 5 Females to 6 Males settlers would receive grants of land in fee simple (free of Quit Rents) proportioned to the Capital they might invest upon public or private objects in the Colony, to the satisfaction of Her Majesty's Government at Home, certified by the Officer Administering the Colonial Government at the rate of one acre for every 1s. 6d. of the Capital so invested, provided they gave previous security, firstly that all supplies sent to the Colony, whether of provisions, stores, or other articles, which might be purchased there or which should have been sent out for the use of them, or their parties, on the requisition of the Secretary of State, if not paid for on delivery in the Colony, should be paid for at home, such capitalist being held liable in his proportion, and 2ndly, that in the event of the Establishment being broken up by the Government, all persons desirous of returning to the British Islands should be conveyed to their own homes at the expense of the Capitalists, by whom they may have been taken out. The passages of Laborers and servants, whether paid for by themselves or others, and whether they were Male or Female, provided the proportion of the sexes before mentioned were retained, were to be considered as an investment of Capital, entitling such party by whom such payment may have been made to an allowance of land at the rate of £15 or 200 acres for the passage of every such laborer or servant, over and above any other investment of Capital.

Any land thus granted which should not have been brought into cultivation or otherwise improved or reclaimed from its wild state to the satisfaction of the Colonial Government within 21 years from the date of the Grant in occupation should at the end of the 21 years revert to the Crown.

Under these regulations 421,340 acres are now in Fee Simple, and 11660 acres are still subject to location duty, 20,000 having been surrendered or have reverted to the Crown.

The original Grants under Circular A were, to

Mr. Peel250,000
Coloneal Latour103.000
Sir Jas, Stirling100,000

These Regulations were superseded by Colonial Office Circular B, dated 13th January, 1829, which after recapitulating the first portion of Circular A (with the exception that it only extended to parties who might arrive in the Colony before the end of 1830) stated provision would be made by Law for rendering those Capitalists who might be engaged in taking out laboring persons liable for the future maintenance of those persons, should they from infirmity or other cause be unable to maintain themselves ; and further stated that the settler to be entitled to his Fee Simple would have to expend at the least 1s. 6d. per acre on the land in Stock, Implements, Husbandry, or in the cultivation of the land, or in solid improvements such as buildings, roads, or other works of the kind. Article 6 of Circular B states " that any land thus allotted, of which a fair proportion of at least ¼ shall not have been brought into cultivation or otherwise improved to the satisfaction of the Local Government within 3 years from the date of the License of Occupation, shall, at the end of 3 years be liable to one further payment of 6d. per acre for all land not so cultivated or improved to be paid

into the Public Chest of the Settlement ; and at the expiration of 7 years more, so much of the whole grant as shall still remain in an uncultivated state shall revert absolutely to the Crown, and in every grant will be contained a condition that at any time within 10 years from the date thereof the Government can resume uncultivated lands for Public purposes without compensation."

From Circulars A and B, it is apparent that the Government in making large grants of land to individuals intended that those lands should be all improved by Cultivation, within 21 years in the first instance and 10 years in the other, but subsequently these regulations were construed to mean that if improvements and expenditure for stock to the value of fracIllegible; the improvements required, amounted in the whole to 1s. 6d. per acre, the holder of the land was entitled to his Fee Simple.

On 10th July, 1830, a third Circular, C, was issued from the Colonial Office to affect persons emigrating to the Colony, subsequently to December, 1830, granting land at the rate of one acre for every 3s. of capital invested, and 100 acres for any laborer or servant introduced, thus doubling the nominal price of Crown Lands, and the limit for improvements was reduced to 4 years, with a fine of 1s. per acre if not so improved in 2 years, and a reversion to the Crown if not improved to the full extent at the end of the 4 years.

Under Circulars B and C, 1,157,048 acres in 490 grants were assigned in occupancy of which 144,432 acres have been resumed and 316,749 acres have been surrendered to the Crown, and 642,124 have been granted in Fee, and 53,743 acres in 7 grants still remain subject to location duties, being 1 grant of 5000 acres in the Sussex District, and 6 grants of 48,743 acres in the Wellington District belonging to the Western Australian Company.

On 1st March, 1831, a fourth Colonial Office Circular, D appeared, doing away with all free grants, excepting those to Officers in the Army and Navy selling out or retiring on half-pay, for the purpose of settling, and for the introduction of labor, and authorizing the sale in Fee Simple of Crown Lands at the minimum rate of 5s. per acre.

In consequence of the very near failure of the Colony in the first instance of its Establishment, the Government took a very liberal view as to enforcing the fines for non-improvement, and allowed parties desirous of obtaining their Fee Simples without the performance of any location duties, to do so on surrendering land at 1s. 6d. per acre, which was paid for in remission Tickets at 5s. per acre—that is, for 10 acres of land surrendered, they were allowed either a remission of 3 acres in future purchases, or they might take up in fee 3 acres of the lands already assigned in occupancy.

Under this regulation 316,749 acres of land were surrendered entitling the Settlers to 95025 acres in Fee.

In July 1841 under authority of the Secretary of States' despatch, No. 10 of 13th March, 1841, the price of land was raised to 12s. per acre, and but few sales were made at that price, viz., 6174 acres in 10 grants—nearly the whole of which was paid for by remission Tickets.

On 3rd June, 1841, it was notified under directions of the Secretary of State, dated 23rd March, 1841, that the minimum price of Crown Lands was to be raised to £1 per acre—this was carried into effect by Notice dated 17th June, 1841, of Regulations under which lands were to be purchased from the Crown, which provided that Land was to be sold in blocks of not less than 160 acres, and the Fee Simple owners of all of these blocks were to be entitled to a commonage immediately adjoining their land so long as such adjacent lands was vacant. This arrangement was not approved by the Home Government, and on 19th July, 1842, it was notified that the minimum quantity that could be purchased from the Crown was 320 acres, without any right of Commonage.

On the 27th March, 1843, the Land Sales' Act 5th and 6th Vict., Cap. 36 was proclaimed as being in force in Western Australia. Under the provisions of which a new set of Regulations was promulgated on June 14th, 1843, stating that land would be Sold by Auction in sections of not less than 160 acres, and not more than 640 acres at an upset price of £1 per acre, with the exception of " Special Country Lots" which were to be from 20 to 160 acres each and subject to such upset price as the Government thought fit ; and further, persons might buy blocks of 20,000 acres or more by making special application.

It will be unnecessary for me to notice many unimportant alterations made in these Regulations, but shall state the provision of those to come into operation in April, 1860, viz. :—

Lands at the disposal of the Crown shall be distinguished into four separate classes, namely, as Town, Suburban, Country and Mineral Lands.

No Waste Lands shall be sold for a less price than ten shillings per acre. Town and Suburban Lots shall be sold by Public Auction, Country Lots at a fixed price of ten shillings per acre ; and lands known or supposed to contain Minerals shall be offered for Sale by Public Auction as " Mineral Lots" at an upset price of not less than twenty shillings per acre.

The size and upset prices of Town and Suburban Lots shall be fixed from time to time by the Governor. The minimum size of Country and Mineral Lots to be 40 acres.

Any smaller quantity than 40 acres of Country or Mineral Land, laid out for Sale, or applied for under special circumstances, shall be sold at such additional price as each case may seem to justify.

Mineral lots shall be paid for by depositing one-third of the purchase money at the time of purchase, and the purchaser shall contract to pay one-third more on the first day of January next but one following the day of Sale, and the balance together with the Fee for Title Deed and Enrolment, on the same day in the succeeding year. Failure in making either of the last two payments shall involve forfeiture of the land, and of all deposits and improvements.

With regard to the Leasing of Crown Lands, the following table shows the number of acres in each year since 1852, previous to which year, although the system of leasing Crown Land existed but few persons availed themselves of it, and to but a small extent.


The first Regulations for Leasing and Licensing of Crown Lands were published on 9th May, 1838, and provided that blocks of not less than 640 acres would be put up to Public Auction at a minimum of £1 for each square mile, the Lease to be an Annual one, and lands could be sold out of the land comprised therein on giving one months' notice to the lessee.

On 21st July, 1843, provision, was made that all leases would be put up to Public Auction in blocks of not less than 640 acres, excepting in very special cases, that a deposit of 10 per cent. be made on application, and the License only to continued for one year.

On 17th October, 1844 other regulations were issued under provision of the Local Ordinance 7th Vict., No. 14, by which the minimum quantity of licensed land was 4000 acres for depasturing stock, and they were no longer put up to Auction, but granted on the following terms :

Not exceeding 1000 sheep, 4000 acres £10.

Not exceeding 1500 sheep, 6000 acres £12.

Not exceeding 2000 sheep, 8000 acres £14.

Not exceeding 3000 sheep, 12000 acres £16.

Each horse or head of horned cattle being reckoned equal to 4 sheep.

On 6th October, 1849, the following scale of License Fees was established:—

For 6000 acres, £10 per annum and £1 per thousand for any additional quantity up to 20,000 acres. No license to be issued for a greater quantity in one block than 20,000 acres.

Up to 31st December, 1849, Fee Simple proprietors had a preferable right to rent the Crown Lands adjoining to their Freeholds, but from that date such priority was not acknowledged.

On the 1st November, 1851, by Authority of an Order in Council, dated 22nd March, 1850, and published on 31st December, 1850, Crown Lands were leased under the following Regulations.

Lands to be divided into two Classes, A and B. The Leases under Class A to be but for one year.

Under Class B the leases were to be for 8 years, at an annual rent of £5, with 10s. additional for each thousand acres comprised in the lease, and the Governor had power to exclude from the computation any part of the land reported to him by the proper Officer to be unavailable for pastoral purposes ; at the end of each year portions of the leased lands might be sold, subject to pre-emption by the Lessee, who possessed that right at all times during the Currency of his Lease.

Leases were subject to renewal for a period of 8 years.

Class A was defined to be land within 2 miles of the sea coast, three miles from the outer boundary of any occupied Townsite or any land within one mile of any Fee Simple Land, and within two miles of the banks of certain rivers and inlets.

Class B comprehended all other Lands in the Colony open for selection.

Leases were subject to forfeiture in three modes.

1st. Upon any conviction for Felony against the Lessee.

2nd. Upon conviction for any offence against the Law by the Lessee, to be enquired into by any two or more Justices of the Peace within 3 months after such conviction, and if the forfeiture be recommended by such Justices the Governor's confirmation was required before it could be carried into effect.

Without noticing many minor alterations which have taken place since 1851, I proceed to state the provisions of the New Regulations which are to come into force in April, 1860.

All Waste Crown Lands are to be divided into two classes A and B.

Class A comprehends all Waste Crown Lands comprised within the following boundaries, with the exception of such lands within the same boundaries as shall be, at the date of these Regulations coming into force, comprised within Class B or Tillage Leases, held under Authority of the Order in Council, dated 22nd March, 1850, viz. :—

On the South, by the right bank of the Blackwood River upwards from Flinders' Bay to its junction with the Tweed River, thence, up the right bank of the said Tweed River, a distance of ten miles in a direct line from said junction, thence in a direct line to the centre of Kojonup Spring ; on the East by a direct line from the centre of Kojonup Spring aforesaid, to the summit of County Peak ; thence by a line about twenty miles in length in the direction of North 27° 30′ West, to the summit of Wongon Hills, thence by a North line about thirty four miles in length, thence by a West line drawn through a spot twenty miles North from the centre of Dundaraga Spring, thence by a North line, to a spot five miles East from the Coal Seam, near the Irwin River, thence by a West line five miles in length to the said Coal Seam, and thence by a direct line to the great Southern bend of the Murchison River, next below the Geraldine Mine ; on the North by a West line from the great bend of the Murchison River aforesaid to the Sea Coast, and on the West by the Sea Coast between the South and North boundaries above described. All bearings above given being true.

Class A shall also comprehend all such lands within the above boundaries that are now in Class B leases, which may determine otherwise than by efflux of time.

Class A land shall further comprehend all lands outside the above boundaries, which may be within the distance of one mile from any lands which may be in fee simple outside the same boundaries at the time when these regulations shall come into force, with the exception of lands purchased within leases in Class B.

Class B comprehends all other lands of the Colony open for selection.

Within the limits of Class A Pastoral Leases may be granted for one year at a yearly rent of 2s. per 100 acres for sections of 1000 acres and upwards ; the land comprised in such lease being at all times open for purchase ; the purchasers of any such land having a right of commonage at the rate of 10 head of horned cattle or horses for every 40 acres purchased, and 5 head for every additional 20 acres.

Holders of Land in Fee Simple of not less than 10 acres around whose land a Class A lease may be taken to have the same right of commonage.

Within the limits of Class B Pastoral Leases may be granted for any term not exceeding 8 years, at a rent of £ 5 per annum with 10s. additional per annum for each 1000 acres. No one lease to be for more than 10000 acres.

Lessees to have a pre-emptive right to purchase within his lease at 10s. per acre, any portion of land (not being less than 40 acres, or not containing minerals) during the first year of his lease, and also to select within 3 years for a homestead a block not exceeding one-fiftieth part of his run.

After the first year the unbought portion of the lease (excepting the selection for a homestead reserved as above for 3 years) the land to be open for public purchase, and the purchasers to be entitled to the same commonage as in Class A.

The Pastoral Licenses and Leases in Class A and B do not permit the occupants of Land to cultivate any portion thereof for cereal productions, but the Local Government of this Colony fully appreciating the great advantage and importance of establishing small Farms and Agricultural Stations as a means of permanent occupation of the land and of increasing our production of bread stuffs and other grain so as to be independent of Foreign Importations, proposed a scheme for granting Tillage Leases for any quantity of Land not exceeding 320 acres, and at a Rent not less than 2s. per acre per annum with right of pre-emption and other privileges. This proposal was confirmed and embraced in the Order of Council of the 22nd March, 1850, and commenced operation concurrently with the other regulations for the occupation of Crown Lands in 1852. From that date to the present time there has been a steady and latterly a rapid development of the resources of the Country in this branch of Rural industry, as is indicated by the following particulars showing the quantity of Land held under such Leases in each year, viz:—

In 1852400 acres.
In 1853400 acres.
In 1854600 acres.
In 18552,020 acres.
In 18562,520 acres.
In 18573,035 acres.
In 18586,736 acres.
In 18597,401 acres.

These Tillage Regulations have been highly successful, and have been prominently instrumental in raising this Colony to a condition of independence, for previously to the year 1858 a large amount of Capital was annually expended in the importation of Flour and Horse corn, without any equivalent exchange to prevent the impoverishing effect of such a state of the market ; but principally owing to the encouragements thus given to agriculture the proceedings of the past year have realized the important fact that for the first time we have become independent of foreign supply, with a certain prospect of having, in the course of the present year a surplus quantity for export.

As the prosperity of a country must depend on its capability of production, it is a subject of great gratification that in so important an article as the staff of life we are become self-supporting.

The system of granting Tillage Leases is confined I believe to Western Australia, and its operation having been so successful, it has been thought advisable to continue it in the New Land Regulations which come into operation on the 15th of April, 1860, not only without any restriction of privileges, but with the additional advantage of a reduction of rent to one-half.


The Regulations to come into force under the New Land Regulations for leasing lands for felling timber are—

Application for a pair of Sawyers, Splitters or Cutters, to fell, cut, split and remove, any

timber, sandal, jam, fire or other wood growing or being on any Waste Lands of the Crown in Western Australia, shall be made to the Collector or to any Sub-Collector of Revenue, or to any Resident Magistrate, who shall thereupon issue the required License, after payment in advance of the following fees :—

For any quantity of land not exceeding 640 acres £20 per annum,

Exceeding 640 and not exceeding 1,280 acres £40per annum.

Or 10 shillings per month for each pair of Sawyers.

To cut Sandal Wood £2 10s. for each pair of Sawyers, and £1 15s. for each additional man employed.

No such license shall be issued for a period less than one nor more than six months. The names of the parties applying for a license shall be inserted therein, and no such license shall be transferable.

Applications for special licenses to fell, remove and sell the timber growing and being on any particular Waste Lands, shall be addressed to the Surveyor General by letter, fully describing the quantity, position and boundaries of the land required, and the date from which a license is to commence.

Any such application shall be accompanied by a deposit of £5 or by the receipt of any Collector of Revenue for that amount. The land applied for shall be selected and described according to the rules laid down in Chapter 5 of the Regulations as published in the Government Gazette of 14th February, 1860.

Such license as last aforesaid shall be prepared in the Office of the Surveyor General, and shall be deliverable by any Collector of Revenue, or by the Resident Magistrate of any District in which the land may be situated, on payment of any balance due thereon.

Every such license shall be for 12 Calendar Months ; and if not taken up at Albany within 2 Calendar months, or at Perth and other Districts within one Calendar month from the date of deposit, the license shall be forfeited, together with the deposit, and the land shall be open to fresh applicants. The License shall not be transferrable.

No rights or privileges shall be conveyed by any such License, beyond those of felling, cutting up, and removing any indigenous timber growing or being on the land licensed ; and at the expiration of the license, all timber left on the ground shall be the property of the Government, unless otherwise arranged by special application in writing, addressed to the Colonial Secretary, or by a renewal of the license for a further term to which an existing lessee shall be considered to have a preferable claim.


The following is taken from a Return of the number of Letters and Newspapers passed through the General Post Office during the three years ended the 31st December, 1859, furnished me by Mr. Helmich, the Postmaster General.

Inland Letters received and forwarded70,08486,120115,806
Letters from places out of the Colony received12,02216,89517,346
Letters to places out of the Colony forwarded13,41616,76521,290
Total letters received and forwarded95,222116,780154,442
POST OFFICE—continued.
Colonial newspapers forwarded in the Colony34,09436,11636,251
Colonial newspapers forwarded out of the Colony4,0386,7278,266
Newspapers received from places out of the Colony18,93625,78433,737
Total newspapers received and forwarded57,06868,62778,254
Registered letters forwarded to places out of the Colony (included in the above return)373692771
Letters forwardedvidMarseilles and Trieste (included in the above return)5638011,382

In addition to the above I would add that in 1859 as compared with 1854—

The increase of the number of Inland Letters received in 5800 or nearly 100 per cent.

and forwarded from the General Post Office, Perth, was 5800 or nearly 100 per cent.

Of Foreign Letters received and forwarded 19236 or nearly 100 per cent.

The total number of Letters passing through the General Post Office as above and through the District Post Offices in 1859 was about 12 to each of the Population.

The distance traveled during 1859 by the Mail Carriers not including Expresses and Town deliveries was nearly 61,000 miles ; and the expense of the Conveyance of the Mails (irrespective of the Subsidy to Royal Mail Service) was about 2¼d. on each letter or newspaper, or about 5¼d. per mile.


The number of Births in 1859 were 531, of which 269 were Males and 262 Females, being in proportion of 10 to 280 of the whole population, 10 Male Births to 357 of the Male Population, and 10 female births to 203 of the female population, the proportion of male births to female was 100 to 98, and of Female to Male births 100 to 103.

The Proportion of Births to Deaths was as 100 to 39 ; of Male Births to Male Deaths as 100 to 54 ; of Female Births to Female Deaths as 100 to 25 ; or 100 Deaths to 254 Births in the whole population ; 9 Male Deaths to 19 Male Births ; and 10 Female Deaths to 40 Female Births.

The excess of Births over Deaths was 322 ; of Male Births over Male Deaths, 126 ; and of Female Births over Female Deaths 196.

The number of Twin Births was 6 or about 1 in every 89 births.

The number of Illegitimate Births was 14 or about 1 in every 39 Births.

The number of Still Born Children was 8 or about 1 in every 67 Births.

The number of Married Women under 48 years of age living with their husbands was 1532, and deducting 14 illegitimate births there was about 1 birth to every 3 Married Women capable of bearing children, and thus out of every 100 of these Women 66 did not bear children during 1859 ; the average annual Proportion during the last 5 years has been about 38 births to every 100 Married Women under 48 years of age.

The natural increase of Population on 31st December, 1859, since 1833 by excess of Births over Deaths has been 3800, and the total increase was 13184, therefore the increase in the 25 years by excess of Immigration over Emigration has been 9384.


The number of Deaths in 1859 were 209—being 143 Males and 66 Females, or 1 in 71, or 1.4 per cent of the whole population ; 1 Male in 63 or 1.5 per cent. of the Male population, and 1 Female in nearly 81 or 1.2 per cent. of the Female population ; the Male Deaths to Female Deaths were as 100 to 46, and the Female to the Male Deaths as 100 to 216.

The following were the Ages at Death in 1859 :—

Under 1473784
1 to 311617
3 to 5
Total under 55843101
5 to 209312
20 to 40441256
40 to 6025631
60 & upwards729
Total above 58523108
Accident and Violence28432
Heart Disease617
Disease of Lungs9211
Disease of Brain527
Child Birth33
Disease of Bowels291443
Still Born358
All other causes321345

Thus in 1859 of the 209 Deaths 101 or 48.3 per cent. were under 5 years of age, of whom 58 were Males or 40.5 per cent. of Male Deaths, and 43 Females or 65.1 per cent. of Female Deaths.

The annual average of Deaths in Western Australia has been, from 1833 to 1849 inclusive, 1.06 per cent. ; 1850 to 1859 inclusive, 0.85 per cent.

The following Table shows the Ages at Death from the specified causes during the six years from 1854 to 1859, both years inclusive.

CAUSES of DEATH in six years from 1st January, 1854, to 31st December, 1859.
Under 11 to 33 to 5Total under 55 to 1515 to 2020 to 3030 to 4040 to 5050 to 6060 and upwards.Total 5 and upwards.GRAND TOTAL.
DISEASE AND CAUSE OF DEATH.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.Males.Females.TOTAL.
Brain, disease of821051611214413426112131121311221251726935
Bowel, disease of37306791221464268213224610443144261910296552117
Bladder and Kidneys11112222448899
Child Birth11991111111111
Delirium Tremens333333
Hooping Cough3361124481111549
Heart, disease of221171843722331762317623
Lungs, disease of12517358221512271211320222665521345449601676
Lock Jaw111111
Throat, disease of42611115381121126410
Causes not known115162131183118311

Thus it will be seen the ages at Death during the last six years have been :—

Under 1145104249
1 to 5373976
Total under 5182143325
5 to 20231437
20 to 4016946215
40 and upwards11435149
Total above 530695401

The number of Births during the last 7 years were 2951—and 10 in every 118 died before the expiration of the first year after birth, or about 8½ per cent.

The causes of death in children under 1 were as follow in the last 6 years :—

Brain, diseases of8210
Bowels diseases of373067
Hooping Cough336
Lungs, diseases of12517
Throat, disease of426
Found dead11

The number of still-born children were 5 in every 57 births or a little more than 1 per cent. Of the above 249 deaths of children under 1 year old—

About 1 in every 50 was from accident and violence,

About 1 in every 22 from Atrophy,

About 1 in every 25 from Brain disease,

About 10 in every 37 from disease of Bowels,

About 1 in every 3 from Convulsions,

About 1 in every 83 from Fever,

About 1 in every 41 from Hooping Cough,

About 2 in every 29 from Lung disease,

About 1 in every 83 from Malformation,

About 1 in every 41 from Teething,

About 1 in every 41 from disease of the Throat, and

About 10 in every 89 were Stillborn.

Thus during the last six years the number of deaths of children under 1 year old were 249, or about 10 in 29 of the whole number of deaths, or about 34 per cent. ; between 1 and 3 62 or about 10 in every 117 deaths or nearly 9 per cent. Deaths between 3 and 5 were 14 or about 10 in 516 deaths or nearly 2 per cent—under 3 there were 311 or about 10 in 23 deaths or nearly 43 per cent., and the total number under 5 years of age was 325 or about 10 in 22 deaths, or nearly 45 per cent.

Of the 76 deaths between 1 and 5, 4 were from Atrophy ; 8 were from Brain disease ; 21 were from disease of the Bowels ; 12 were from accident ; 4 from Croup ; 6 from Convulsions, 10 from disease of the Lungs, and 11 from other causes.

Between 5 and 20 there were but 37 deaths or about 1 in 20 of the whole number or about 5 per cent.

Of these, 10 were from Accident ; 7 from Diseases of Brain ; 5 from Bowel complaint ; and 7 from Decline ; and 8 from other causes.

Between 20 and 40 there were 215 Deaths, or about 5 in 17 of the whole number, or nearly 30 per cent—of these 45 were from accident and violence ; 14 from disease of Bowels ; 41 from Decline ; 14 from Fever ; 35 from disease of Lungs, and 66 from other causes.

Of 40 years of age and upwards there were 149 deaths, or about 10 in 49 or about 20 per cent—of these 13 were from Accident and Violence ; 10 from Bowel complaint ; 18 from Decline ; 27 from Debility ; 12 from Heart disease ; 14 from disease of the Lungs, and 55 from other causes.

During the last 6 years 88 persons lost their lives by Accident or Violence, or rather more than one-eighth of the whole number of Deaths, or about 12 per cent, thus :—

Burned 7 ; Drowned 39 ; Suicide 4 ; Murdered 6 ; Hanged 6 ; thrown from Horse 6 ; killed by Bullocks 1 ; Suffocated 2 ; Killed in Stone Quarry 1 ; Shot by accident 1 ; Run Over by Cart 1 ; causes not stated, 14.

Of the total number of persons who have died in the Colony during the last six years, 35 died from Brain diseases, (of whom 18 were under 5 years of age) or about 5 per cent. ; 117 of Diseases of Bowels (of whom 88 were under 5 years of age) or about 16 per cent ; 87 of Convulsions, all of whom were under 5 years of age, or about 12 per cent. ; 69 of decline (of whom 3 were under 5 years of age) or nearly 10 per cent. ; 33 of Debility, or about 4½ per cent. ; 25 of Fever, (of whom 4 were under 5 years of age) or about 3½ per cent. ; 23 of Heart Disease, or about 3 per cent. ; 76 of diseases of the Lungs (of whom 27 were under 5) or about 10 per cent.

The Colony has been founded 30 years, and the Deaths among those between the ages of 5 and 30 who were born in the Colony have been but 20 during the last six years, namely—

5 to 15 years of age4
15 to 20 years of age6
20 to 30 years of age10

or about 1 in 7 of the total number of deaths between 5 and 30, or rather more than 2.7 per cent. of the total number of deaths during the last six years.

Of these 20 deaths,

3 were from disease of the brain,

4 from disease of the Bowels,

8 from Accident,

1 from Hooping Cough, and

4 from decline.

With regard to the number of Adults who died from Consumption, Heart Disease, Lung Disease, Liver Complaints and Chronic diseases of the Bowels, with very few exceptions the seeds of these complaints were brought with them into the Colony.

In connexion with this subject I append a list of cases treated in the Colonial Hospital, Perth, during the last 3 years, obligingly furnished me by Mr. Ferguson, the Colonial Surgeon.

RETURN of the number of Diseases treated in the Colnial Hospital, Perth, from 1st january, 1857, to 31st Decomber, 1859.
General Chronic Disease42
Febris Ephemera8
Febris Gastrica22
Febris Intermittens1
Rheumatism Acute and Chronic38
Coup de Soleil1
Delirium Tremens1
Disease of Heart41
RETURN of the number of Diseases treated in the Colnial Hospital, Perth, from 1st january, 1857, to 31st Decomber, 1859—continued.
Phthisis Pulmonalis84
Inflamed Throat1
Dysentery, Acute and Chronic113
Torpor, Intestinorum4
Chronic disease of Liver41
Abscesses in various situations11
Lumbar Abscess11
Ulcers in various situations24
Ulcerated Absorbments11
Inflamed Leg4
Incised Wounds7
Gun Shot Wounds3
Extensive Lacerations of Face and removal of inferior Maxilla1
Injury of Knee9
Disease of Knee Joint1
Disease of Elbow2
Disease of Spine1
Necrosis of Clavicle1
RETURN of the number of Diseases treated in the Colnial Hospital, Perth, from 1st january, 1857, to 31st Decomber, 1859—continued.
Non-union of Fractured Leg1
Fracture of Thigh3
Fracture of Leg1
Fracture of Thigh and compound fracture of Leg11
Fracture of Ribs1
Dislocation of Elbow1
Ophthalmia (various character)36
Scirrhus of Uterus2
Whitlow, Amputation of Finger3
Amputation of Leg3
Total in the 3 years30722


The Climate of Western Australia is one of the first in the World—the heat of summer is tempered by the sea breezes, and there are but few days during the year of really hot weather, caused by the land wind blowing across bush fires.

The seasons are but three—Spring, from April to June—Winter from June to September and Summer from September to April—the year being thus equally divided into the Rainy and Summer seasons—Spring succeeding Summer and preceding Winter.

There are not any Endemic diseases in Western Australia—an Epidemic Catarrh called the " Influenza" attacks the Colonist twice in the year, at the changes of the season, from Summer to Spring, and Winter to Summer ; this takes the form of a common cold, and is generally very mild in its attacks excepting among the Aborigines, with whom, from their exposed lives it is sometimes fatal—it is uncertain as to the locality of its breaking out, but whenever and wherever it does appear it invariably runs through the whole length and breadth of the Colony, attacking even isolated stations in the bush.

Free.Expirees.Conditional Pardon Men.Ticket-of-Leave Men.Females.TOTAL.Free.Expirees.Conditional Pardon Men.Ticket-of-Leave Men.Females.TOTAL.Free.Expirees.Conditional Pardon Men.Ticket-of-Leave Men.Females.TOTAL.Free.Expirees.Conditional Pardon Men.Ticket-of-Leave Men.Females.TOTAL.Free.Expirees.Conditional Pardon Men.Ticket-of-Leave Men.Females.TOTAL.Free.Expirees.Conditional Pardon Men.Ticket-of-Leave Men.Females.TOTAL.Free.Expirees.Conditional Pardon Men.Ticket-of-Leave Men.Females.TOTAL.Free.Expirees.Conditional Pardon Men.Ticket-of-Leave Men.Females.TOTAL.Free.Expirees.Conditional Pardon Men.Ticket-of-Leave Men.Females.TOTAL.Free.Expirees.Conditional Pardon Men.Ticket-of-Leave Men.Females.TOTAL.
Common Assult2456149581576723731419711110114742431375113446615183814151
Obtaining Money under false pretences1121341416
Cruelty to Animals2241113125
Drunkenness and Disorderly Conduct8631501152230415039251784243438638131316841473616319193876126547171238669725111460148123064433104147642741,400
Petty Larceny4573335291314128119112821222134224215891101135715795141
Robbery from the Person241711131215110
Robbery with Violence1111
Stealing Stock11111111134
Receiving Stolen Property1281121111112219115
Concealing Birth1111
Assault with intent to Commit Rape1111
Highway Robbery1111
Other Felonics111311112232117
[* Of an Aborigine]

The total number of charges before Magistrates for Misdemeanors in 1859 were 1805 ; of these 557 were against Free Men, 335 against Expirees and Conditional Pardon Men, 811 against Ticket-of-Leave Men, and 102 against Females.

Of these 1805 charges 1400 were for drunkenness and disorderly conduct or 77.5 per cent. leaving but 405 or 22.5 per cent. for other crimes.

Of the 1400 charges for drunkenness and disorderly conduct—

433 were against Free Men.

251 were against Expirees and Conditional Pardon Men.

642 were against Ticket-of-Leave Men, and

74 were against Women.

The proportions of these charges were 10 to every 75 Free Male Adults, 10 to every 46 Expirees and Conditional Pardon Men, and 10 to every 25 Ticket-of-Leave Men.

Exclusive of these 1400 charges there were but—

In Perth 142 other charges for Misdemeanors.

In Fremantle 97

In Guildford 29

In York 42

In Toodyay 18

In Bunbury 26

In Vasse 24

In Albany 20

In Victoria 7

Of these—

151 were for common assault,

3 for Burglary,

16 for Housebreaking,

9 for Forgery,

6 for obtaining money under false pretences,

3 for Arson,

5 for Cruelty to Animals,

28 for Vagrancy,

141 for Petty Larceny,

10 for Robbery from the Person,

1 for Robbery with Violence,

4 for Stealing Stock,

15 for receiving Stolen Property,

2 for Perjury,

1 for concealing Birth,

1 for Assault with intent to commit Rape,

1 for Murder of a Native,

1 for Highway Robbery, and

7 for other Felonies.

The proportions of these charges were 10 to each 263 Free Male Adults, 10 to every 140 Expirees and Conditional Pardon Men, and 10 to every 95 Ticket-of-Leave Men.

It is not my place to do more than point out that the prevailing crime of the Colony is Drunkenness, and that other crimes are very few indeed, and proportionably less than in any other British Colony—this is a bold assertion to make but I feel convinced the foregoing statistics will bear it out.

The quiet and peace of the Colony must be a subject of congratulation, particularly when it is considered that it is a Penal Settlement ; and I believe that any person reviewing the facts I have given in this report will draw therefrom the conclusion that the Convict system in Western Australia has prospered beyond the most sanguine hopes that could have been entertained by its originators, of its success.


The following Return shows the progress of business in the Civil Court, during the last four years, irrespective of incidental Matters, Motions, Writs of Attachment, and Writs of Execution, &c., &c. :—

Civil Court.
LAW SIDE.Plaints issued.100887976
Amounts used for16,6034912,65231011,62118105,9531811
Causes brought to Trial37483334
Judgments confessed in Office43191311
Sums decreed in Court2,0661756,9611082,6931681,51382
Sums confessed in Office7,105811,628582,769120340149
Causes not otherwise prosecuted20213331
Bills Filed2362
INSOLVENCY SIDE.Petitions Filed1126
Debts proved and other Liabilities1161102,588834,34956
Assets realized1,4247114,161136
ECCLESIASTICAL SIDEProbates granted4635
Letters of Administration granted105411
SITTINGS.Monthly, Weekly, and oftener, as circumstances may require.
FEES OF COURT.Fees received and paid to Government891599681014513272160

In conclusion of this Report, I trust the statement I made in its commencement as to the prosperity of the Colony has been borne out by the foregoing Statistics. I have shewn an increased Trade, an increased Revenue, and a great increase in Farming operations, and one sure sign of the progress of Western Australia is the general absence of anxiety as to the future : possessed of valuable indigenous articles for export, a large amount of land suited for cultivation, a considerable extent of Mineral Lands, combined with a fine healthy climate, it requires but energy and capital to raise it to an importance to which its Geographical position entitles it.


Registrar General.